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 NCSC-TG-004-88

Library No. S-231,238

FOREWORD

This publication, "Glossary of Computer Security Terms," is issued by the National Computer
Security Center (NCSC) under the authority of and in accordance with Department of Defense
(DoD) Directive 5215.1, "Computer Security Evaluation Center." The definitions in this glossary
are intended for use by U.S. Government agencies or contractors that apply the criteria of DoD
Directive 5200.28-STD, "DoD Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria," in the use of their
computer systems.

Recommendations for revision to this publication are encouraged and will be reviewed
periodically by the NCSC. Address all proposals for revision through appropriate channels to:

National Computer Security Center

9800 Savage Road

Fort George G. Meade, MD 20755-6000

Attention: Chief, Criteria and Technical Guidelines Division

21 October 1988

Patrick R. Gallagher, Jr.

Director

National Computer Security Center

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Congressional Sales Office, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Recognition is extended to Sue Berg as primary researcher for this glossary, Carol Lane as the
initial editor, and to Mary Whittaker as final researcher and editor. Appreciation is extended to all
who contributed and refined the definitions, particularly Devolyn Duggar and Maj. Douglas
Hardie, USAF.

PREFACE

This glossary contains material drawn primarily from official documents of the United States
Government departments and agencies. Other terms are from private organizations and
individuals, as indicated in the Reference section at the end of this document.

The intent of the National Computer Security Center is for this document to focus on terms in
the field of computer security. However, because of the overlap of computer security and other
security disciplines, some terms such as TEMPEST are included.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOREWORD

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

PREFACE

COMPUTER SECURITY ACRONYMS

COMPUTER SECURITY TERMS

REFERENCES

GLOSSARY OF COMPUTER SECURITY ACRONYMS

AIS Automated Information System

COMPUSEC Computer Security

COMSEC Communications Security

CSTVRP Computer Security Technical Vulnerability Reporting Program

DAA Designated Approving Authority

DAC Discretionary Access Control

DES Data Encryption Standard

DPL Degausser Products List

DTLS Descriptive Top-Level Specification

EPL Evaluated Products List

ETL Endorsed Tools List

FTLS Formal Top-Level Specification

ISSO Information System Security Officer

MAC Mandatory Access Control

NCSC National Computer Security Center

NTISSC National Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Committee

OPSEC Operations Security

PPL Preferred Products List

SAISS Subcommittee on Automated Information Systems Security of NTISSC

SSO System Security Officer

STS Subcommittee on Telecommunications Security of NTISSC

TCB Trusted Computing Base

TCSEC DoD Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria

GLOSSARY OF COMPUTER SECURITY TERMS

-*-

*-property (or star property)

A Bell-La Padula security model rule allowing a subject write access to an object only if the
security level of the object dominates the security level of the subject. Also called confinement
property.

-A-

acceptance inspection

The final inspection to determine whether or not a facility or system meets the specified
technical and performance standards. Note: This inspection is held immediately after facility
and software testing and is the basis for commissioning or accepting the information system.

access

A specific type of interaction between a subject and an object that results in the flow of
information from one to the other.

access control

The process of limiting access to the resources of a system only to authorized programs,
processes, or other systems (in a network. Synonymous with controlled access and limited
access.

access control mechanism

Hardware or software features, operating procedures, management procedures, and various
combinations of these designed to detect and prevent unauthorized access and to permit
authorized access in an automated system.

access level

The hierarchical portion of the security level used to identify the sensitivity of data and the
clearance or authorization of users. Note: The access level, in conjunction with the
nonhierarchical categories, forms the sensitivity label of an object. See category, security
level, and sensitivity label.

access list

A list of users, programs, and/or processes and the specifications of access categories to which
each is assigned.

access period

A segment of time, generally expressed on a daily or weekly basis, during which access rights
prevail.

access port

A logical or physical identifier that a computer uses to distinguish different terminal input/
output data streams.

access type

The nature of an access right to a particular device, program, or file (e.g., read, write, execute,
append, modify, delete, or create).

accountability

The property that enables activities on a system to be traced to individuals who may then be
held responsible for their actions.

accreditation

A formal declaration by the DAA that the AIS is approved to operate in a particular security
mode using a prescribed set of safeguards. Accreditation is the official management
authorization for operation of an AIS and is based on the certification process as well as other
management considerations. The accreditation statement affixes security responsibility with
the DAA and shows that due care has been taken for security.

accreditation authority

Synonymous with Designated Approving Authority.

add-on security

The retrofitting of protection mechanisms, implemented by hardware or software.

administrative security

The management constraints and supplemental controls established to provide an acceptable
level of protection for data. Synonymous with procedural security.

assurance

A measure of confidence that the security features and architecture of an AIS accurately
mediate and enforce the security policy.

attack

The act of trying to bypass security controls on a system. An attack may be active, resulting
in the alteration of data; or passive, resulting in the release of data. Note: The fact that an attack
is made does not necessarily mean that it will succeed. The degree of success depends on the
vulnerability of the system or activity and the effectiveness of existing countermeasures.

audit trail

A chronological record of system activities that is sufficient to enable the reconstruction,
reviewing, and examination of the sequence of environments and activities surrounding or
leading to an operation, a procedure, or an event in a transaction from its inception to final
results.

authenticate

(1) To verify the identity of a user, device, or other entity in a computer system, often as a
prerequisite to allowing access to resources in a system.

(2) To verify the integrity of data that have been stored, transmitted, or otherwise exposed to
possible unauthorized modification.

authenticator

The means used to confirm the identity or to verify the eligibility of a station, originator, or
individual.

authorization

The granting of access rights to a user, program, or process.

automated data processing security

Synonymous with automated information systems security.

automated information system (AIS)

An assembly of computer hardware, software and/or firmware configured to collect, create,
communicate, compute, disseminate, process, store, and/or control data or information.

automated information system security

Measures and controls that protect an AIS against denial of service and unauthorized
(accidental or intentional) disclosure, modification, or destruction of AISs and data. AIS
security includes consideration of all hardware and/or software functions, characteristics and/
or features; operational procedures, accountability procedures, and access controls at the
central computer facility, remote computer, and terminal facilities; management constraints;
physical structures and devices; and personnel and communication controls needed to provide
an acceptable level of risk for the AIS and for the data and information contained in the AIS.
It includes the totality of security safeguards needed to provide an acceptable protection level
for an AIS and for data handled by an AIS.

automated security monitoring

The use of automated procedures to ensure that security controls are not circumvented.

availability of data

The state when data are in the place needed by the user, at the time the user needs them, and
in the form needed by the user.

-B-

back door

Synonymous with trap door.

backup plan

Synonymous with contingency pIan.

Bell-La Padula model

A formal state transition model of computer security policy that describes a set of access
control rules. In this formal model, the entities in a computer system are divided into abstract
sets of subjects and objects. The notion of a secure state is defined, and it is proven that each
state transition preserves security by moving from secure state to secure state, thereby
inductively proving that the system is secure. A system state is defined to be "secure" if the
only permitted access modes of subjects to objects are in accordance with a specific security
policy. In order to determine whether or not a specific access mode is allowed, the clearance
of a subject is compared to the classification of the object, and a determination is made as to
whether the subject is authorized for the specific access mode. See star property (*-property)
and simple security property.

benign environment

A nonhostile environment that may be protected from external hostile elements by physical,
personnel, and procedural security countermeasures.

between-the-lines entry

Unauthorized access obtained by tapping the temporarily inactive terminal of a legitimate
user. See piggy back.

beyond A1

A level of trust defined by the DoD Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC)
that is beyond the state-of-the-art technology available at the time the criteria were developed.
It includes all the A1-level features plus additional ones not required at the A1 level.

browsing

The act of searching through storage to locate or acquire information without necessarily
knowing of the existence or the format of the information being sought.

-C-

call back

A procedure for identifying a remote terminal. In a call back, the host system disconnects the
caller and then dials the authorized telephone number of the remote terminal to reestablish the
connection. Synonymous with dial back.

capability

A protected identifier that both identifies the object and specifies the access rights to be
allowed to the accessor who possesses the capability. In a capability-based system, access to
protected objects such as files is granted if the would-be accessor possesses a capability for
the object.

category

A restrictive label that has been applied to classified or unclassified data as a means of
increasing the protection of the data and further restricting access to the data.

certification

The comprehensive evaluation of the technical and nontechnical security features of an AIS
and other safeguards, made in support of the accreditation process, that establishes the extent
to which a particular design and implementation meet a specified set of security requirements.

closed security environment

An environment in which both of the following conditions hold true:

(1) Application developers (including maintainers) have sufficient clearances and
authorizations to provide an acceptable presumption that they have not introduced malicious
logic. (2) Configuration control provides sufficient assurance that applications and the
equipment are protected against the introduction of malicious logic prior to and during the
operation of system applications.

communications security (COMSEC)

Measures taken to deny unauthorized persons information derived from telecommunications
of the U.S. Government concerning national security, and to ensure the authenticity of such
telecommunicatons. Communications security includes cryptosecurity, transmission security,
emission security, and physical security of communications security material and information.

compartment

A class of information that has need-to-know access controls beyond those normally provided
for access to Confidential, Secret or Top Secret information.

compartmented security mode

See modes of operation.

compromise

A violation of the security policy of a system such that unauthorized disclosure of sensitive
information may have occurred.

compromising emanations

Unintentional data-related or intelligence-bearing signals that, if intercepted and analyzed,
disclose the information transmission received, handled, or otherwise processed by any
information processing equipment. See TEMPEST.

computer abuse

The misuse, alteration, disruption or destruction of data processing resources. The key aspect
is that it is intentional and improper.

computer cryptography

The use of a crypto-algorithm in a computer, microprocessor, or microcomputer to perform
encryption or decryption in order to protect information or to authenticate users, sources, or
information.

computer fraud

Computer-related crimes involving deliberate misrepresentation, alteration or disclosure of
data in order to obtain something of value (usually for monetary gain). A computer system
must have been involved in the perpetration or coverup of the act or series of acts. A computer
system might have been involved through improper manipulation of input data; output or
results; applications programs; data files; computer operations; communications; or computer
hardware, systems software, or firmware.

computer security (COMPUSEC)

Synonymous with automated information systems security.

computer security subsystem

A device designed to provide limited computer security features in a larger system
environment.

Computer Security Technical Vulnerability Reporting Program (CSTVRP)

A program that focuses on technical vulnerabilities in commercially available hardware,
firmware and software products acquired by DoD. CSTVRP provides for the reporting,
cataloging, and discreet dissemination of technical vulnerability and corrective measure
information to DoD components on a need-to-know basis.

concealment system

A method of achieving confidentiality in which sensitive information is hidden by embedding
it in irrelevant data.

confidentiality

The concept of holding sensitive data in confidence, limited to an appropriate set of
individuals or organizations.

configuration control

The process of controlling modifications to the system's hardware, firmware, software, and
documentation that provides sufficient assurance that the system is protected against the
introduction of improper modifications prior to, during, and after system implementation.
Compare configuration management.

configuration management

The management of security features and assurances through control of changes made to a
system's hardware, software, firmware, documentation, test, test fixtures and test
documentation throughout the development and operational life of the system. Compare
configuration control.

confinement

The prevention of the leaking of sensitive data from a program.

confinement channel

Synonymous with covert channel.

confinement property

Synonymous with star property (*-property).

contamination

The intermixing of data at different sensitivity and need-to-know levels. The lower level data
is said to be contaminated by the higher level data; thus, the contaminating (higher level) data
may not receive the required level of protection.

contingency plan

A plan for emergency response, backup operations, and post-disaster recovery maintained by
an activity as a part of its security program that will ensure the availability of critical resources
and facilitate the continuity of operations in an emergency situation. Synonymous with
disaster plan and emergency plan.

control zone

The space, expressed in feet of radius, surrounding equipment processing sensitive
information, that is under sufficient physical and technical control to preclude an unauthorized
entry or compromise.

controlled access

See access control.

controlled sharing

The condition that exists when access control is applied to all users and components of a
system.

cost-risk analysis

The assessment of the costs of providing data protection for a system versus the cost of losing
or compromising the data.

countermeasure

Any action, device, procedure, technique, or other measure that reduces the vulnerability of or
threat to a system.

covert channel

A communications channel that allows two cooperating processes to transfer information in a
manner that violates the system's security policy. Synonymous with confinement channel.

covert storage channel

A covert channel that involves the direct or indirect writing of a storage location by one
process and the direct or indirect reading of the storage location by another process. Covert
storage channels typically involve a finite resource (e.g., sectors on a disk) that is shared by
two subjects at different security levels.

covert timing channel

A covert channel in which one process signals information to another by modulating its own
use of system resources (e.g., CPU time) in such a way that this manipulation affects the real
response time observed by the second process.

Criteria

See DoD Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria.

crypto-algorithm

A well-defined procedure or sequence of rules or steps used to produce a key stream or cipher
text from plain text and vice versa.

cryptography

The principles, means and methods for rendering information unintelligible, and for restoring
encrypted information to intelligible form.

cryptosecurity

The security or protection resulting from the proper use of technically sound cryptosystems.

-D-

Data Encryption Standard (DES)

A cryptographic algorithm for the protection of unclassified data, published in Federal
Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 46. The DES, which was approved by the National
Institute of Standards and Technology, is intended for public and government use.

data flow control

Synonymous with information flow control.

data integrity

The property that data meet an a priori expectation of quality.

data security

The protection of data from unauthorized (accidental or intentional) modification, destruction,
or disclosure.

declassification of AIS storage media

An administrative decision or procedure to remove or reduce the security classification of the
subject media.

dedicated security mode

See modes of operation.

default classification

A temporary classification reflecting the highest classification being processed in a system.
The default classification is included in the caution statement affixed to the object.

degauss

To reduce magnetic flux density to zero by applying a reverse magnetizing field.

degausser

An electrical device that can generate a magnetic field for the purpose of degaussing magnetic
storage media.

Degausser Products List (DPL)

A list of commercially produced degaussers that meet National Security Agency
specifications. This list is included in the NSA Information Systems Security Products and
Services Catalogue, and is available through the Government Printing Office.

denial of service

Any action or series of actions that prevent any part of a system from functioning in
accordance with its intended purpose. This includes any action that causes unauthorized
destruction, modification, or delay of service. Synonymous with interdiction.

Descriptive Top-Level Specification (DTLS)

A top-level specification that is written in a natural language (e.g., English), an informal
design notation, or a combination of the two.

Designated Approving Authority (DAA)

The official who has the authority to decide on accepting the security safeguards prescribed
for an AIS or that official who may be responsible for issuing an accreditation statement that
records the decision to accept those safeguards.

dial back

Synonymous with call back.

dial-up

The service whereby a computer terminal can use the telephone to initiate and effect
communication with a computer.

disaster plan

Synonymous with contingency plan.

discretionary access control (DAC)

A means of restricting access to objects based on the identity and need-to-know of the user,
process and/or groups to which they belong. The controls are discretionary in the sense that a
subject with a certain access permission is capable of passing that permission (perhaps
indirectly) on to any other subject. Compare mandatory access control.

DoD Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC)

A document published by the National Computer Security Center containing a uniform set of
basic requirements and evaluation classes for assessing degrees of assurance in the
effectiveness of hardware and software security controls built into systems. These criteria are
intended for use in the design and evaluation of systems that will process and/or store sensitive
or classified data. This document is Government Standard DoD 5200.28-STD and is
frequently referred to as "The Criteria" or "The Orange Book."

domain

The unique context (e.g., access control parameters) in which a program is operating; in effect,
the set of objects that a subject has the ability to access. See process and subject.

dominate

Security level S1 is said to dominate security level S2 if the hierarchical classification of S1 is
greater than or equal to that of S2 and the nonhierarchical categories of S1 include all those of
S2 as a subset.

-E-

emanations

See compromising emanations.

embedded system

A system that performs or controls a function, either in whole or in part, as an integral element
of a larger system or subsystem.

emergency plan

Synonymous with contingency pIan.

emission security

The protection resulting from all measures taken to deny unauthorized persons information of
value that might be derived from intercept and from an analysis of compromising emanations
from systems.

end-to-end encryption

The protection of information passed in a telecommunications system by cryptographic
means, from point of origin to point of destination.

Endorsed Tools List (ETL)

The list of formal verification tools endorsed by the NCSC for the development of systems
with high levels of trust.

Enhanced Hierarchical Development Methodology

An integrated set of tools designed to aid in creating, analyzing, modifying, managing, and
documenting program specifications and proofs. This methology includes a specification
parser and type checker, a theorem prover, and a multi-level security checker. Note: This
methodology is not based upon the Hierarchical Development Methodology.

entrapment

The deliberate planting of apparent flaws in a system for the purpose of detecting attempted
penetrations.

environment

The aggregate of external procedures, conditions, and objects that affect the development,
operation, and maintenance of a system.

erasure

A process by which a signal recorded on magnetic media is removed. Erasure is accomplished
in two ways: (1) by alternating current erasure, by which the information is destroyed by
applying an alternating high and low magnetic field to the media; or (2) by direct current
erasure, by which the media are saturated by applying a unidirectional magnetic field.

Evaluated Products List (EPL)

A list of equipments, hardware, software, and/or firmware that have been evaluated against,
and found to be technically compliant, at a particular level of trust, with the DoD TCSEC by
the NCSC. The EPL is included in the National Security Agency Information Systems Security
Products and Services Catalogue, which is available through the Government Printing Office.

executive state

One of several states in which a system may operate and the only one in which certain
privileged instructions may be executed. Such instructions cannot be executed when the
system is operating in other (e.g., user) states. Synonymous with supervisor state.

exploitable channel

Any information channel that is usable or detectable by subjects external to the trusted
computing base whose purpose is to violate the security policy of the system. See covert
channel.

-F-

failsafe

Pertaining to the automatic protection of programs and/or processing systems to maintain
safety when a hardware or software failure is detected in a system.

failsoft

Pertaining to the selective termination of affected nonessential processing when a hardware or
software failure is detected in a system.

failure access

An unauthorized and usually inadvertent access to data resulting from a hardware or software
failure in the system.

failure control

The methodology used to detect and provide fail-safe or fail-soft recovery from hardware and
software failures in a system.

fault

A condition that causes a device or system component to fail to perform in a required manner.

fetch protection

A system-provided restriction to prevent a program from accessing data in another users
segment of storage.

file protection

The aggregate of all processes and procedures in a system designed to inhibit unauthorized
access, contamination, or elimination of a file.

file security

The means by which access to computer files is limited to authorized users only.

flaw hypothesis methodology

A systems analysis and penetration technique in which specifications and documentation for
the system are analyzed and then flaws in the system are hypothesized. The list of
hypothesized flaws is then prioritized on the basis of the estimated probability that a flaw
exists and, assuming a flaw does exist, on the ease of exploiting it, and on the extent of control
or compromise it would provide. The prioritized list is used to direct a penetration attack
against the system.

flow control

See information flow control.

formal access approval

Documented approval by a data owner to allow access to a particular category of information.

Formal Development Methodology

A collection of languages and tools that enforces a rigorous method of verification. This
methodology uses the Ina Jo specification language for successive stages of system
development, including identification and modeling of requirements, high-level design, and
program design.

formal proof

A complete and convincing mathematical argument, presenting the full logical justification
for each proof step, for the truth of a theorem or set of theorems.

formal security policy model

A mathematically precise statement of a security policy. To be adequately precise, such a
model must represent the initial state of a system, the way in which the system progresses from
one state to another, and a definition of a "secure" state of the system. To be acceptable as a
basis for a TCB, the model must be supported by, a formal proof that if the initial state of the
system satisfies the definition of a "secure" state and if all assumptions required by the model
hold, then all future states of the system will be secure. Some formal modeling techniques
include: state transition models, denotational semantics models, and algebraic specification
models. See Bell-La Padula model and security policy model.

Formal Top-Level Specification (FTLS)

A top-level specification that is written in a formal mathematical language to allow theorems
showing the correspondence of the system specification to its formal requirements to be
hypothesized and formally proven.

formal verification

The process of using formal proofs to demonstrate the consistency between a formal
specification of a system and a formal security policy model (design verification) or between
the formal specification and its high level program implementation (implementation
verification).

front-end security filter

A security filter, which could be implemented in hardware or software, that is logically
separated from the remainder of the system to protect the system's integrity.

functional testing

The segment of security testing in which the advertised security mechanisms of the system are
tested, under operational conditions, for correct operation.

-G-

granularity

An expression of the relative size of a data object; e.g., protection at the file level is considered
coarse granularity, whereas protection at field level is considered to be of a finer granularity.

guard

A processor that provides a filter between two disparate systems operating at different security
levels or between a user terminal and a data base to filter out data that the user is not authorized
to access.

Gypsy Verification Environment

An integrated set of tools for specifying, coding, and verifying programs written in the Gypsy
language, a language similar to Pascal which has both specification and programming
features. This methology includes an editor, a specification processor, a verification condition
generator, a user-directed theorem prover, and an information flow tool.

-H-

handshaking procedure

A dialogue between two entities (e.g., a user and a computer, a computer and another
computer, or a program and another program) for the purpose of identifying and
authenticating the entities to one another.

Hierarchical Development Methodology

A methodology for specifying and verifying the design programs written in the Special
specification language. The tools for this methodology include the Special specification
processor, the Boyer-Moore theorem prover, and the Feiertag information flow tool.

host to front-end protocol

A set of conventions governing the format and control of data that are passed from a host to a
front-end machine.

-I-

identification

The process that enables recognition of an entity by a system, generally by the use of unique
machine-readable user names.

impersonating

Synonymous with spoofing.

incomplete parameter checking

A system design flaw that results when all parameters have not been fully anticipated for
accuracy and consistency, thus making the system vulnerable to penetration.

individual accountability

The ability to associate positively the identity of a user with the time, method, and degree of
access to a system.

information flow control

A procedure to ensure that information transfers within a system are not made from a higher
security level object to an object of a lower security level. See covert channel, simple security
property, star property (*-property). Synonymous with data flow control and flow control.

Information System Security Officer (ISSO)

The person responsible to the DAA for ensuring that security is provided for and implemented
throughout the life cycle of an AIS from the beginning of the concept development plan
through its design, development, operation, maintenance, and secure disposal.

Information Systems Security Products and Services Catalogue

A catalogue issued quarterly by the National Security Agency that incorporates the DPL, EPL,
ETL, PPL and other security product and service lists. This catalogue is available through the
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402, (202)783-3238.

integrity

Sound, unimpaired or perfect condition.

interdiction

See denial of service.

internal security controls

Hardware, firmware, and software features within a system that restrict access to resources
(hardware, software, and data) to authorized subjects only (persons, programs, or devices).

isolation

The containment of subjects and objects in a system in such a way that they are separated from
one another, as well as from the protection controls of the operating system.

-J-

This document contains no entries beginning with the letter "J".

-K-

This document contains no entries beginning with the letter "K".

-L-

least privilege

The principle that requires that each subject be granted the most restrictive set of privileges
needed for the performance of authorized tasks. The application of this principle limits the
damage that can result from accident, error, or unauthorized use.

limited access

Synonymous with access control.

list-oriented

A computer protection system in which each protected object has a list of all subjects
authorized to access it. Compare ticket-oriented.

lock-and-key protection system

A protection system that involves matching a key or password with a specific access
requirement.

logic bomb

A resident computer program that triggers the perpetration of an unauthorized act when
particular states of the system are realized.

loophole

An error of omission or oversight in software or hardware that permits circumventing the
system security policy.

-M-

magnetic remanence

A measure of the magnetic flux density remaining after removal of the applied magnetic force.
Refers to any data remaining on magnetic storage media after removal of the power.

maintenance hook

Special instructions in software to allow easy maintenance and additional feature
development. These are not clearly defined during access for design specification. Hooks
frequently allow entry into the code at unusual points or without the usual checks, so they are
a serious security risk if they are not removed prior to live implementation. Maintenance
hooks are special types of trap doors.

malicious logic

Hardware, software, or firmware that is intentionally included in a system for an unauthorized
purpose; e.g., a Trojan horse.

mandatory access control (MAC)

A means of restricting access to objects based on the sensitivity (as represented by a label) of
the information contained in the objects and the formal authorization (i. e., clearance) of
subjects to access information of such sensitivity. Compare discretionary access control.

masquerading

Synonymous with spoofing.

mimicking

Synonymous with spoofing.

modes of operation

A description of the conditions under which an AIS functions, based on the sensitivity of data
processed and the clearance levels and authorizations of the users. Four modes of operation
are authorized:

(1) Dedicated Mode

An AIS is operating in the dedicated mode when each user with direct or indirect
individual access to the AIS, its peripherals, remote terminals, or remote hosts, has all of
the following:

a. A valid personnel clearance for all information on the system.

b. Formal access approval for, and has signed nondisclosure agreements for all the
information stored and/or processed (including all compartments, subcompartments
and/or special access programs).

c. A valid need-to-know for all information contained within the system.

(2) System-High Mode

An AS is operating in the system-high mode when each user with direct or indirect access
to the AIS, its peripherals, remote terminals, or remote hosts has all of the following:

a. A valid personnel clearance for all information on the AIS.

b. Formal access approval for, and has signed nondisclosure agreements for all the
information stored and/or processed (including all compartments,
subcompartments, and/or special access programs).

c. A valid need-to-know for some of the information contained within the AIS.

(3) Compartmented Mode

An AIS is operating in the compartmented mode when each user with direct or indirect
access to AIS, its peripherals, remote terminals, or remote hosts, has all of the following.

a. A valid personnel clearance for the most restricted information processed in the
AIS.

b. Formal access approval for, and has signed nondisclosure agreements for that
information to which he/she is to have access.

c. A valid need-to-know for that information to which he/she is to have access.

(4) Multilevel Mode

An AIS is operating in the multilevel mode when all the following statements are
satisfied concerning the users with direct or indirect access to the AIS, its peripherals,
remote terminals, or remote hosts:

a. Some do not have a valid personnel clearance for all the information processed
in the AIS.

b. All have the proper clearance and have the appropriate formal access approval
for that information to which he/she is to have access.

c. All have a valid need-to-know for that information to which they are to have
access.

multilevel device

A device that is used in a manner that permits it to simultaneously process data of two or more
security levels without risk of compromise. To accomplish this, sensitivity labels are normally
stored on the same physical medium and in the same form (i.e., machine-readable or human-
readable) as the data being processed.

multilevel secure

A class of system containing information with different sensitivities that simultaneously
permits access by users with different security clearances and needs-to-know, but prevents
users from obtaining access to information for which they lack authorization.

multilevel security mode

See modes of operation.

multiple access rights terminal

A terminal that may be used by more than one class of users; for example, users with different
access rights to data.

multiuser mode of operation

A mode of operation designed for systems that process sensitive unclassified information in
which users may not have a need-to-know for all information processed in the system. This
mode is also for microcomputers processing sensitive unclassified information that cannot
meet the requirements of the stand-alone mode of operation.

mutually suspicious

The state that exists between interacting processes (subsystems or programs) in which neither
process can expect the other process to function securely with respect to some property.

-N-

National Computer Security Assessment Program

A program designed to evaluate the interrelationship of empirical data of computer security
infractions and critical systems profiles, while comprehensively incorporating information
from the CSTVRP. The assessment will build threat and vulnerability scenarios that are based
on a collection of facts from relevant reported cases. Such scenarios are a powerful, dramatic,
and concise form of representing the value of loss experience analysis.

National Computer Security Center (NCSC)

Originally named the DoD Computer Security Center, the NCSC is responsible for
encouraging the widespread availability of trusted computer systems throughout the Federal
Government.

National Security Decision Directive 145 (NSDD 145)

Signed by President Reagan on 17 September 1984, this directive is entitled "National Policy
on Telecommunications and Automated Information Systems Security." It provides initial
objectives, policies, and an organizational structure to guide the conduct of national activities
toward safeguarding systems that process, store, or communicate sensitive information;
establishes a mechanism for policy development; and assigns implementation responsibilities.

National Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Advisory

Memoranda/Instructions (NTISSAM, NTISSI)

NTISS Advisory Memoranda and Instructions provide advice, assistance, or information of
general interest on telecommunications and systems security to all applicable federal
departments and agencies. NTISSAMs/NTISSIs are promulgated by the National Manager for
Telecommunications and Automated Information Systems Security and are recommendatory.

National Telecommunications and Information System Security Directives (NTISSD)

NTISS Directives establish national-level decisions relating to NTISS policies, plans,
programs, systems, or organizational delegations of authority. NTISSDs are promulgated by
the Executive Agent of the Government for Telecommunications and Information Systems
Security, or by the Chairman of the NTISSC when so delegated by the Executive Agent.
NTISSDs are binding upon all federal departments and agencies.

need-to-know

The necessity for access to, knowledge of, or possession of specific information required to
carry out official duties.

network front end

A device that implements the necessary network protocols, including security-related
protocols, to allow a computer system to be attached to a network.

NSDD 145

See National Security Decision Directive 145.

-O-

object

A passive entity that contains or receives information. Access to an object potentially implies
access to the information it contains. Examples of objects are: records, blocks, pages,
segments, files, directories, directory trees, and programs, as well as bits, bytes, words, fields,
processors, video displays, keyboards, clocks, printers, and network nodes.

object reuse

The reassignment and reuse of a storage medium (e.g., page frame, disk sector, magnetic tape)
that once contained one or more objects. To be securely reused and assigned to a new subject,
storage media must contain no residual data (magnetic remanence) from the object(s)
previously contained in the media.

open security environment

An environment that includes those systems in which at least one of the folIowing conditions
holds true: (l) Application developers (including maintainers) do not have sufficient clearance
or authorization to provide an acceptable presumption that they have not introduced malicious
logic. (2) Configuration control does not provide sufficient assurance that applications are
protected against the introduction of malicious logic prior to and during the operation of
system applications.

Operations Security (OPSEC)

An analytical process by which the U.S. Government and its supporting contractors can deny
to potential adversaries information about capabilities and intentions by identifying,
controlling, and protecting evidence of the planning and execution of sensitive activities and
operations.

Orange Book

Alternate name for DoD Trusted Computer Security Evaluation Criteria.

overt channel

A path within a computer system or network that is designed for the authorized transfer of
data. Compare covert channel.

overwrite procedure

A stimulation to change the state of a bit followed by a known pattern. See magnetic
remanence.

-P-

partitioned security mode

A mode of operation wherein all personnel have the clearance but not necessarily formal
access approval and need-to-know for all information contained in the system. Not to be
confused with compartmented security mode.

password

A protected/private character string used to authenticate an identity.

penetration

The successful act of bypassing the security mechanisms of a system.

penetration signature

The characteristics or identifying marks that may be produced by a penetration.

penetration study

A study to determine the feasibility and methods for defeating controls of a system.

penetration testing

The portion of security testing in which the evaluators attempt to circumvent the security
features of a system. The evaluators may be assumed to use all system design and
implementation documentation, which may include listings of system source code, manuals,
and circuit diagrams. The evaluators work under the same constraints applied to ordinary
users.

periods processing

The processing of various levels of sensitive information at distinctly different times. Under
periods processing, the system must be purged of all information from one processing period
before transitioning to the next when there are different users with differing authorizations.

permissions

A description of the type of authorized interactions a subject can have with an object.
Examples include: read, write, execute, add, modify, and delete.

personnel security

The procedures established to ensure that all personnel who have access to sensitive
information have the required authority as well as appropriate clearances.

physical security

The application of physical barriers and control procedures as preventive measures or
countermeasures against threats to resources and sensitive information.

piggyback

Gaining unauthorized access to a system via another user's legitimate connection. See
between-the-lines entry.

Preferred Products List (PPL)

A list of commercially produced equipments that meet TEMPEST and other requirements
prescribed by the National Security Agency. This list is included in the NSA Information
Systems Security Products and Services Catalogue, issued quarterly and available through the
Government Printing Office.

print suppression

Eliminating the displaying of characters in order to preserve their secrecy; e.g., not displaying
the characters of a password as it is keyed at the input terminal.

privileged instructions

A set of instructions (e.g., interrupt handling or special computer instructions) to control
features (such as storage protection features) that are generally executable only when the
automated system is operating in the executive state.

procedural security

Synonymous with administrative security.

process

A program in execution. See domain and subject.

protection philosophy

An informal description of the overall design of a system that delineates each of the protection
mechanisms employed. A combination, appropriate to the evaluation class, of formal and
informal techniques is used to show that the mechanisms are adequate `to enforce the security
policy.

protection ring

One of a hierarchy of privileged modes of a system that gives certain access rights to user
programs and processes authorized to operate in a given mode.

protection-critical portions of the TCB

Those portions of the TCB whose normal function is to deal with the control of access between
subjects and objects. Their correct operation is essential to the protection of the data on the
system.

protocols

A set of rules and formats, semantic and syntactic, that permits entities to exchange
information.

pseudo-flaw

An apparent loophole deliberately implanted in an operating system program as a trap for
intruders.

Public Law 100-235 (P.L. 100-235)

Also known as the Computer Security Act of 1987, this law creates a means for establishing
minimum acceptable security practices for improving the security and privacy of sensitive
information in federal computer systems. This law assigns to the National Institute of
Standards and Technology responsibility for developing standards and guidelines for federal
computer systems processing unclassified data. The law also requires establishment of
security plans by all operators of federal computer systems that contain sensitive information.

purge

The removal of sensitive data from an AIS, AIS storage device, or peripheral device with
storage capacity, at the end of a processing period. This action is performed in such a way that
there is assurance proportional to the sensitivity of the data that the data may not be
reconstructed. An AIS must be disconnected from any external network before a purge. After
a purge, the medium can be declassified by observing the review procedures of the respective
agency.

-Q-

This document contains no entries beginning with the letter "Q".

-R-

read

A fundamental operation that results only in the flow of information from an object to a
subject.

read access

Permission to read information.

recovery procedures

The actions necessary to restore a system's computational capability and data files after a
system failure.

reference monitor concept

An access-control concept that refers to an abstract machine that mediates all accesses to
objects by subjects.

reference validation mechanism

An implementation of the reference monitor concept. A security kernel is a type of reference
validation mechanism.

reliability

The probability of a given system performing its mission adequately for a specified period of
time under the expected operating conditions.

residual risk

The portion of risk that remains after security measures have been applied.

residue

Data left in storage after processing operations are complete, but before degaussing or
rewriting has taken place.

resource encapsulation

The process of ensuring that a resource not be directly accessible by a subject, but that it be
protected so that the reference monitor can properly mediate accesses to it.

restricted area

Any area to which access is subject to special restrictions or controls for reasons of security
or safeguarding of property or material.

risk

The probability that a particular threat will exploit a particular vulnerability of the system.

risk analysis

The process of identifying security risks, determining their magnitude, and identifying areas
needing safeguards. Risk analysis is a part of risk management. Synonymous with risk
assessment.

risk assessment

Synonymous with risk analysis.

risk index

The disparity between the minimum clearance or authorization of system users and the
maximum sensitivity (e.g., classification and categories) of data processed by a system. See
CSC-STD-003-85 and CSC-STD-004-85 for a complete explanation oft his term.

risk management

The total process of identifying, controlling, and eliminating or minimizing uncertain events
that may affect system resources. It includes risk analysis, cost benefit analysis, selection,
implementation and test, security evaluation of safeguards, and overall security review.

-S-

safeguards

See security safeguards.

scavenging

Searching through object residue to acquire unauthorized data.

secure configuration management

The set of procedures appropriate for controlling changes to a system's hardware and software
structure for the purpose of ensuring that changes will not lead to violations of the system's
security policy.

secure state

A condition in which no subject can access any object in an unauthorized manner.

secure subsystem

A subsystem that contains its own implementation of the reference monitor concept for those
resources it controls. However, the secure subsystem must depend on other controls and the
base operating system for the control of subjects and the more primitive system objects.

security critical mechanisms

Those security mechanisms whose correct operation is necessary to ensure that the security
policy is enforced.

security evaluation

An evaluation done to assess the degree of trust that can be placed in systems for the secure
handling of sensitive information. One type, a product evaluation, is an evaluation performed
on the hardware and software features and assurances of a computer product from a
perspective that excludes the application environment. The other type, a system evaluation, is
done for the purpose of assessing a system's security safeguards with respect to a specific
operational mission and is a major step in the certification and accreditation process.

security fault analysis

A security analysis, usually performed on hardware at gate level, to determine the security
properties of a device when a hardware fault is encountered.

security features

The security-relevant functions, mechanisms, and characteristics of system hardware and
software. Security features are a subset of system security safeguards.

security filter

A trusted subsystem that enforces a security policy on the data that pass through it.

security flaw

An error of commission or omission in a system that may allow protection mechanisms to be
bypassed.

security flow analysis

A security analysis performed on a formal system specification that locates potential flows of
information within the system.

security kernel

The hardware, firmware, and software elements of a TCB that implement the reference
monitor concept. It must mediate all accesses, be protected from modification, and be
verifiable as correct.

security label

A piece of information that represents the security level of an object.

security level

The combination of a hierarchical classification and a set of nonhierarchical categories that
represents the sensitivity of information.

security measures

Elements of software, firmware, hardware, or procedures that are included in a system for the
satisfaction of security specifications.

security perimeter

The boundary where security controls are in effect to protect assets.

security policy

The set of laws, rules, and practices that regulate how an organization manages, protects, and
distributes sensitive information.

security policy model

A formal presentation of the security policy enforced by the system. It must identify the set of
rules and practices that regulate how a system manages, protects, and distributes sensitive
information. See Bell-La Padula model and formal security policy model.

security range

The highest and lowest security levels that are permitted in or on a system, system component,
subsystem or network.

security requirements

The types and levels of protection necessary for equipment, data, information, applications,
and facilities to meet security policy.

security requirements baseline

A description of minimum requirements necessary for a system to maintain an acceptable
level of security.

security safeguards

The protective measures and controls that are prescribed to meet the security requirements
specified for a system. Those safeguards may include but are not necessarily limited to:
hardware and software security features, operating procedures, accountability procedures,
access and distribution controls, management constraints, personnel security, and physical
structures, areas, and devices. Also called safeguards.

security specifications

A detailed description of the safeguards required to protect a system.

security test and evaluation

An examination and analysis of the security safeguards of a system as they have been applied
in an operational environment to determine the security posture of the system.

security testing

A process used to determine that the security features of a system are implemented as
designed. This includes hands-on functional testing, penetration testing, and verification.

sensitive information

Any information, the loss, misuse, modification of, or unauthorized access to, could affect the
national interest or the conduct of Federal programs, or the privacy to which individuals are
entitled under Section 552a of Title 5, U.S. Code, but that has not been specifically authorized
under criteria established by an Executive order or an act of Congress to be kept classified in
the interest of national defense or foreign policy.

sensitivity label

A piece of information that represents the security level of an object. Sensitivity labels are
used by the TCB as the basis for mandatory access control decisions.

simple security condition

See simple security property.

simple security property

A Bell-La Padula security model rule allowing a subject read access to an object only if the
security level of the subject dominates the security level of the object. Synonymous with
simple security condition.

single-level device

An automated information systems device that is used to process data of a single security level
at any one time.

Software Development Methodologies

Methodologies for specifying and verifying design programs for system development. Each
methodology is written for a specific computer language. See Enhanced Hierarchical
Development Methodology, Formal Development Methodology, Gypsy Verification
Environment and Hierarchical Development Methodology.

software security

General purpose (executive, utility or software development tools) and applications programs
or routines that protect data handled by a system.

software system test and evaluation process

A process that plans, develops and documents the quantitative demonstration of the fulfillment
of all baseline functional performance, operational and interface requirements.

spoofing

An attempt to gain access to a system by posing as an authorized user. Synonymous with
impersonating, masquerading or .mimicking.

stand-alone, shared system

A system that is physically and electrically isolated from all other systems, and is intended to
be used by more than one person, either simultaneously (e.g., a system with multiple
terminals) or serially, with data belonging to one user remaining available to the system while
another user is using the system (e.g., a personal computer with non removable storage media
such as a hard disk).

stand-alone, single-user system

A system that is physically and electrically isolated from all other systems, and is intended to
be used by one person at a time, with no data belonging to other users remaining in the system
(e.g., a personal computer with removable storage media such as a floppy disk).

star property

See *-property, page 2.

State Delta Verification System

A system designed to give high confidence regarding microcode performance by using
formulae that represent isolated states of a computation to check proofs concerning the course
of that computation.

state variable

A variable that represents either the state of the system or the state of some system resource.

storage object

An object that supports both read and write accesses.

Subcommittee on Automated Information Systems Security (SAISS)

NSDD-145 authorizes and directs the establishment, under the NTISSC, of a permanent
Subcommittee on Automated Information Systems Security. The SAISS is composed of one
voting member from each organization represented on the NTISSC.

Subcommittee on Telecommunications Security (STS)

NSDD-145 authorizes and directs the establishment, under the NTISSC, of a permanent
Subcommittee on Telecommunications Security. The STS is composed of one voting member
from each organization represented on the NTISSC.

subject

An active entity, generally in the form of a person, process, or device, that causes information
to flow among objects or changes the system state. Technically, a process/domain pair.

subject security level

A subject's security level is equal to the security level of the objects to which it has both read
and write access. A subject's security level must always be dominated by the clearance of the
user with which the subject is associated.

supervisor state

Synonymous with executive state.

System Development Methodologies

Methodologies developed through software engineering to manage the complexity of system
development. Development methodologies include software engineering aids and high-level
design analysis tools.

system high security mode

See modes of operation.

system integrity

The quality that a system has when it performs its intended function in an unimpaired manner,
free from deliberate or inadvertent unauthorized manipulation of the system.

system low

The lowest security level supported by a system at a particular time or in a particular
environment.

System Security Officer (550)

See Information System Security Officer.

Systems Security Steering Group

The senior government body established by NSDD-145 to provide top-level review and policy
guidance for the telecommunications security and automated information systems security
activities of the U.S. Government. This group is chaired by the Assistant to the President for
National Security Affairs and consists of the Secretary of State, Secretary of Treasury, the
Secretary of Defense, the Attorney General, the Director of the Office of Management and
Budget, and the Director of Central Intelligence.

-T-

tampering

An unauthorized modification that alters the proper functioning of an equipment or system in
a manner that degrades the security or functionality it provides.

technical attack

An attack that can be perpetrated by circumventing or nullifying hardware and software
protection mechanisms, rather than by subverting system personnel or other users.

technical vulnerability

A hardware, firmware, communication, or software flaw that leaves a computer processing
system open for potential exploitation, either externally or internally, thereby resulting in risk
for the owner, user, or manager of the system.

TEMPEST

The study and control of spurious electronic signals emitted by electrical equipment.

terminal identification

The means used to uniquely identify a terminal to a system.

threat

Any circumstance or event with the potential to cause harm to a system in the form of
destruction, disclosure, modification of data, and/or denial of service.

threat agent

A method used to exploit a vulnerability in a system, operation, or facility.

threat analysis

The examination of all actions and events that might adversely affect a system or operation.

threat monitoring

The analysis, assessment, and review of audit trails and other data collected for the purpose of
searching out system events that may constitute violations or attempted violations of system
security.

ticket-oriented

A computer protection system in which each subject maintains a list of unforgeable bit
patterns, called tickets, one for each object the subject is authorized to access. Compare list-
oriented.

time-dependent password

A password that is valid only at a certain time of day or during a specified interval of time.

top-level specification

A nonprocedural description of system behavior at the most abstract level; typically, a
functional specification that omits all implementation details.

tranquility

A security model rule stating that the security level of an object cannot change while the object
is being processed by an AIS.

trap door

A hidden software or hardware mechanism that can be triggered to permit system protection
mechanisms to be circumvented. It is activated in some innocent-appearing manner; e.g., a
special "random" key sequence at a terminal. Software developers often introduce trap doors
in their code to enable them to reenter the system and perform certain functions. Synonymous
with back door.

Trojan horse

A computer program with an apparently or actually useful function that contains additional
(hidden) functions that surreptitiously exploit the legitimate authorizations of the invoking
process to the detriment of security or integrity.

trusted computer system

A system that employs sufficient hardware and software assurance measures to allow its use
for simultaneous processing of a range of sensitive or classified information.

Trusted Computing Base (TCB)

The totality of protection mechanisms within a computer system, including hardware,
firmware, and software, the combination of which is responsible for enforcing a security
policy. A TCB consists of one or more components that together enforce a unified security
policy over a product or system. The ability of a TCB to enforce correctly a unified security
policy depends solely on the mechanisms within the TCB and on the correct input by system
administrative personnel of parameters (e.g., a user's clearance level) related to the security
policy.

trusted distribution

A trusted method for distributing the TCB hardware, software, and firmware components,
both originals and updates, that provides methods for protecting the TCB from modification
during distribution and for detection of any changes to the TCB that may occur.

trusted identification forwarding

An identification method used in networks whereby the sending host can verify that an
authorized user on its system is attempting a connection to another host. The sending host
transmits the required user authentication information to the receiving host.The receiving host
can then verify that the user is validated for access to its system. This operation may be
transparent to the user.

trusted path

A mechanism by which a person at a terminal can communicate directly with the TCB. This
mechanism can only be activated by the person or the TCB and cannot be imitated by
untrusted software.

trusted process

A process whose incorrect or malicious execution is capable of violating system security
policy.

trusted software

The software portion of the TCB.

-U-

untrusted process

A process that has not been evaluated or examined for adherence to the security policy. It may
include incorrect or malicious code that attempts to circumvent the security mechanisms.

user

Person or process accessing an AIS either by direct connections (i.e., via terminals), or indirect
connections (i.e., prepare input data or receive output that is not reviewed for content or
classification by a responsible individual).

user ID

A unique symbol or character string that is used by a system to identify a specific user.

user profile

Patterns of a user's activity that can be used to detect changes in normal routines.

-V-

verification

The process of comparing two levels of system specification for proper correspondence (e.g.,
security policy model with top-level specification, top-level specification with source code, or
source code with object code). This process may or may not be automated.

virus

A self-propagating Trojan horse, composed of a mission component, a trigger component, and
a self-propagating component.

vulnerability

A weakness in system security procedures, system design, implementation, internal controls,
etc., that could be exploited to violate system security policy.

vulnerability analysis

The systematic examination of systems in order to determine the adequacy of security
measures, identify security deficiencies, and provide data from which to predict the
effectiveness of proposed security measures.

vulnerability assessment

A measurement of vulnerability which includes the susceptibility of a particular system to a
specific attack and the opportunities available to a threat agent to mount that attack.

-W-

work factor

An estimate of the effort or time needed by a potential penetrator with specified expertise and
resources to overcome a protective measure.

write

A fundamental operation that results only in the flow of information from a subject to an
object.

write access

Permission to write to an object.

-X,Y,Z-

This document contains no entries beginning with the letters "X," "Y," or "Z."

REFERENCES

Air Force Regulation 700-10, "Information Systems Security," 15 March 1985.

Army Regulation 380-380, "Automated Systems Security," 3 March 1985.

Department of Defense Computer Security Center, CSC-STD-002-85, "Department of Defense
Password Management Guideline," 12 April 1985.

Department of Defense Computer Security Center, CSC-STD-003-85, "Computer Security
Requirements --Guidance for Applying the Department of Defense Trusted Computer System
Evaluation Criteria to Specific Environments," 25 June 1985.

Department of Defense Computer Security Center, CSC-STD-004-85, "Technical Rationale
Behind CSC-STD-003-85: Computer Security Requirements--Guidance for Applying the
Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria in Specific Environments,
"25 June 1985.

Department of Defense Directive 5200.1-R, "Information Security Program Regulation," June
1986.

Department of Defense Directive 5200.28, "Security Requirements for Automated Information
Systems," 21 March 1988

Department of Defense Directive 5200.28-M, "ADP Security Manual," January 1973.

Department of Defense Directive 5200.28-STD, "Department of Defense Trusted Computer
System Evaluation Criteria," December 1985.

Department of Defense Directive 5215.1, "Computer Security Evaluation Center," 25 October
1982.

Department of Defense Directive 5230.25, "Withholding of Unclassified Technical Data from
Public Disclosure," 6 November 1984.

Department of Defense Directive 7040.6, "Internal Control Systems," 24 March 1982.

Department of Defense Instruction 5215.2, "Computer Security Technical Vulnerability Reporting
Program (CSTVRP)," 2 September 1986.

Department of Energy Order 5635.1A, "Control of Classified Documents and Information," 12
February 1988.

Department of Energy Order 5637.1, "Classified Computer Security Program," 29 January 1988.

Director of Central Intelligence Directive 1/16, "Security Policy for Uniform Protection of
Intelligence Processed in Automated Information Systems and Networks," 19 July 1988.
(SECRET)

Mitre Corp. Technical Report MTR-8201, "Trusted Computer Systems - Glossary," March 1981.

National Security Decision Directive 145, "National Policy on Telecommunications and
Automated Systems Security," 17 December 1984.

Office of Navy Operations Instruction 5239.1A, "Department of the Navy Automatic Data
Processing Security Program," 8 March 1982.

Public Law 100-235, "Computer Security Act of 1987," 8 January 1988. Stein, Jess (ed.), "The
Random House Dictionary of the English Language," Random House, 1982.