A Guide to Understanding Trusted Recovery in Trusted Systems
Table of Contents
Library No. S-236,061 Version 1
A Guide to Understanding Trusted Recovery in Trusted Systems provides
a set of good practices related to trusted recovery. We have written
this guideline to help the vendor and evaluator community understand
the requirements for trusted recovery, as well as the level of detail
required for trusted recovery at all applicable classes, as described
in the Department of Defense Trusted Computer Systems Evaluation
Criteria. In an effort to provide guidance, we make recommendations
in this technical guideline that are not requirements in the Criteria.
The Trusted Recovery Guide is the latest in a series of technical
guidelines published by the National Computer Security Center.
These publications provide insight to the Trusted Computer Systems
Evaluation Criteria requirements for the computer security vendor
and technical evaluator. The goal of the Technical Guideline Program
is to discuss each feature of the Criteria in detail and to provide
the proper interpretations with specific guidance.
The National Computer Security Center has established an aggressive
program to study and implement computer security technology. Our
goal is to encourage the widespread availability of trusted computer
products for use by any organization desiring better protection
of its important data. One way we do this is by the Trusted Product
Evaluation Program. This program focuses on the security features
of commercially produced and supported computer systems. We evaluate
the protection capabilities against the established criteria presented
in the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria. This program,
and an open and cooperative business relationship with the computer
and telecommunications industries, will result in the fulfillment
of our country's information systems security requirements. We
resolve to meet the challenge of identifying trusted computer products
suitable for use in processing information that needs protection.
I invite your suggestions for revising this technical guideline.
We will review this document as the need arises.
The National Computer Security Center extends special recognition
and acknowledgment to Dr. Virgil D. Gligor as the primary author
of this document. James N. Menendez and Capt. James A. Muysenberg
(USAF) are recognized for the development of this guideline, and
Capt. Muysenberg is recognized for its editing and publication.
- 30 December 1991
- Patrick R. Gallagher, Jr.
- National Computer Security Center
We wish to thank the many members of the computer security community
who enthusiastically gave their time and technical expertise in
reviewing this guideline and providing valuable comments and suggestions.
The principal goal of the National Computer Security Center (NCSC)
is to encourage the widespread availability of trusted computer systems.
In support of this goal the NCSC created a metric, the DoD Trusted
Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC) , against which computer
systems could be evaluated.
The TCSEC was originally published on 15 August 1983 as CSC-STD-001-83.
In December 1985 the Department of Defense adopted it, with a few
changes, as a Department of Defense Standard, DoD 5200.28-STD.
DoD Directive 5200.28, Security Requirements for Automatic Information
Systems (AISs) , requires the Department of Defense to use
the TCSEC. The TCSEC is the standard used for evaluating the effectiveness
of security controls built into DoD AISs.
The TCSEC is divided into four divisions: D, C, B, and A. These
divisions are ordered in a hierarchical manner. The TCSEC reserves
the highest division (A) for systems providing the best available
level of assurance. Within divisions C and B are subdivisions known
as classes, which also are ordered in a hierarchical manner to
represent different levels of security in these divisions.
An important assurance requirement of the TCSEC, which appears in
classes B3 to A1, is trusted recovery. The objective of trusted recovery
is to ensure the maintenance of the security and accountability properties
of a system in the face of failures and discontinuities of operation.
To accomplish this, a system should incorporate a set of mechanisms
enabling it to remain in a secure state whenever a well- defined
set of anticipated failures or discontinuities occur. It also should
include a set of procedures enabling the administrators to bring
the system to a secure state whenever unanticipated failures or discontinuities
occur. (Chapter 6 explains the distinction between anticipated and
Besides these mechanisms, the TCSEC's B3-A1 classes require the
implementor to follow specific design principles and practices,
collectively called assurance measures. The TCSEC further requires
the developer to provide specific documentation evidence sufficient
for an evaluator or accreditor to verify that the mechanisms and
assurances are sufficient to meet specified requirements.
This guide presents the issues involved in the design of trusted
recovery. It provides guidance to manufacturers on what functions
of trusted recovery to incorporate into their systems. It also
provides guidance to system evaluators and accreditors on how to
evaluate the design and implementation of trusted recovery functions.
This document contains suggestions and recommendations derived
from TCSEC objectives but which the TCSEC does not require. Examples
in this document are not the only way of accomplishing trusted
recovery. Nor are the recommendations supplementary requirements
to the TCSEC. The only measure of TCSEC compliance is the TCSEC
This guideline isn't a tutorial introduction to the topic of
recovery. Instead, it's a summary of trusted recovery issues that
should be addressed by operating systems designed to satisfy the
requirements of the B3 and A1 classes. We assume the reader of
this document is an operating system designer or evaluator who
is already familiar with the notion of recovery in operating systems.
The guide explains the security properties of system recovery (and
the notion of trusted recovery). It also defines a set of baseline
requirements and recommendations for the design and evaluation
of trusted recovery mechanisms and assurance. The reader who is
unfamiliar with the notion of system recovery and security modeling
required of B3 and Al systems may find it useful to refer both
to the recovery literature (such as [1, 5, 14-16, 20-23, 25, 27])
and the security literature (such as [3,11, 26, 29]) cited in this
Trusted recovery refers to mechanisms and procedures necessary to
ensure that failures and discontinuities of operation don't compromise
a system's secure operation. The guidelines for trusted recovery
presented refer to the design of these mechanisms and procedures
required for the classes B3 and A1 of the TCSEC. These guidelines
apply to computer systems and products built or modified with the
intention of satisfying TCSEC requirements. We make additional recommendations
derived from the stated objectives of the TCSEC.
Not addressed are recovery measures designed to tolerate failures
caused by physical attacks on ADP equipment, natural disasters,
water or fire damage, nor administrative measures that deal with
such events. The evaluation of these measures is beyond the scope
of the TCSEC [17, p. 89].
Trusted recovery is one of the areas of operational assurance. The
assurance control objective states:
Systems that are used to process or handle classified or other sensitive
information must be designed to guarantee correct and accurate interpretation
of the security policy and must not distort the intent of that policy.
Assurance must be provided that correct implementation and operation
of the policy exists throughout the system's life-cycle." [17,
This objective affects trusted recovery in two important ways. First,
the design and implementation of the recovery mechanisms and procedures
must satisfy the life-cycle assurance requirements of correct implementation
and operation. Second, both a system's administrative procedures
and recovery mechanisms should ensure correct enforcement of the
system security policy in the face of system failures and discontinuities
of operation. The notions of failure and discontinuity of operation
are defined in Chapter 2.
This guide contains five chapters besides this introductory chapter.
Chapter 2 reviews the key notions of failure, discontinuity of operation,
and recovery. Chapter 3 discusses the properties of trusted recovery.
Chapter 4 presents recovery design approaches and options that can
be used for trusted recovery. Chapter 5 discusses the impact of the
other TCSEC requirements on trusted recovery. Chapter 6 presents
TCSEC requirements that affect the design and implementation of trusted
recovery functions, and includes additional recommendations corresponding
to B3-A1 evaluation classes. The glossary contains the definitions
of the significant terms used. Following this is a list of the references
cited in the text.
The TCSEC requires for security classes B3 and A1 that:
In this chapter we discuss the notions of failure and discontinuity
of Trusted Computing Base (TCB) operations, and present an informal
qualitative description of their effects on system states. We also
briefly present general recovery approaches used in practice. Throughout
this chapter and document we use the term "failure" for
an event causing a system function to behave inconsistently with
its informal specification. We reserve the term "discontinuity" of
operation for failures caused by user, administrator, or operator
- "Procedures and/or mechanisms shall be provided to assure
that, after an ADP system failure or other discontinuity, recovery
without a protection compromise is obtained." [17, p. 39]
Recovery mechanisms of computer systems are designed to respond
to anticipated failures or discontinuities of operation. These
mechanisms do not handle "unanticipated" failures nor "unanticipated" discontinuities
of operation; therefore, computer-system documentation should include
descriptions of administrative procedures to handle such events.
In a well-designed system, unanticipated failures and discontinuities
of operation are events expected to occur with very low frequency,
i.e., once or twice per year. For this reason, administrative procedures,
as opposed to automated mechanisms in the system, represent an
adequate response to unanticipated failures and discontinuities
of operation, even when these procedures are complex and extensive.
One can't establish formal models of failure and discontinuity
of operation in which proofs demonstrate the model's internal consistency.
Neither physical systems, such as devices, processing units, and
storage, nor behaviors of users, administrators, and operators,
have formal properties . Therefore, formal modeling and specification
of expected failures and discontinuities of operation can't be
required. Only informal assumptions derived from operational experience
can be made about expected failures, discontinuities, their effects,
and their frequencies. References [14, 15, 21] present examples
of such assumptions. These informal assumptions, which should be
stated explicitly in system documentation, form the basis for the
design of the recovery mechanisms and the definition of the administrative
However, recovery mechanisms and administrative procedures must
reconstruct consistent system states, or prevent state transitions
to inconsistent states, as a direct response to occurrences of
expected failures or discontinuities of operation [8, 9]. A system
state is "consistent" if the variables defining it satisfy
given predicates expressing formally or informally invariant properties
of the system, discussed in Section 3.1. A "state transition" is
a function which changes the variables of a system state in a specified
way, i.e., specified as constraints on the system's rules of operation
-discussed in Section 3.2. Therefore, the design of recovery mechanisms
and administrative procedures should use invariant properties and
state-transition constraints of the security model defined for
the system, viz., discussion in Chapter 3.
The role of recovery mechanisms and of trusted recovery can be
best understood by illustrating the effect of failures and discontinuities
of operation on typical systems. Informal and qualitative assumptions
of failures derived from operational experience with various systems
have been presented in the literature [14,15, 21]. Using these
informal assumptions we can define general classes of failures
that affect the operation of a TCB.
One class of failures is identical to the class of errors caused
when users pass wrong parameters to TCB primitives, or invoke the
wrong TCB primitives, and when system resources are exhausted or
found in an inconsistent state because of user actions. These are
called state-transition failures or action failures. We cover this
type of user-induced failure, which falls more naturally in the
area of exception processing, for two reasons: (1) the failures
of this class are, nevertheless, TCB domain failures regardless
of their cause; and (2) the processing of these failures---not
just their specification and documentation---is relevant to system
For example, incorrect error processing can bring the system
into a state where a user cannot communicate with the TCB, or can
contribute to the mishandling of covert channels. However, we place
the major emphasis in this guideline on the more traditional notions
of failure, namely TCB failures, media failures, and administrator-induced
discontinuity of operation.
State-transition failures, also called action failures, occur whenever
a TCB primitive, which causes a state transition, cannot complete
its function because it detects exceptional conditions during its
execution. State-transition failures can be caused by bad parameters
passed to TCB primitives, by exhaustion of resource limits, by missing
objects needed during TCB primitive execution, and so on.
The effects of state-transition failures on TCB states are not
as far-reaching as those of other failures. Because these failures
occur often, the code of TCB primitives usually includes recovery
mechanisms that undo the temporary modifications of system states
before the primitive's return, thus returning the system to a consistent
state. If the recovery mechanisms of TCB primitives fail to undo
temporary modifications of system states, the system may remain
in an inconsistent state and eventually crash. A crash is a failure
that causes the processors' registers to be reset to some standard
values . Because consistent system states cannot be recovered
from processor and primary memory registers after a crash, these
registers are referred to as "volatile" storage. In contrast,
consistent system states can usually be recovered from magnetic
media such as disks and tapes; these media are called "nonvolatile" storage.
Examples of recovery mechanisms included in TCB primitives to
undo temporary state modifications after state-transition failures
are found in most contemporary operating systems. For instance,
consider the "creat" primitive of a hypothetical UNlX
system which allocates i-node table entries before allocating file
table entries [l]. If the file table entry is full at the time "creat" call
is made, a state-transition failure would occur. Before returning
to the caller, the recovery code of "creat" deallocates
the i-node table entry allocated for the file that couldn't be
created. Failure to deallocate such entries would cause the i-node
table to fill up and remain full, causing a system crash.
TCB failures occur whenever the TCB code detects an error below the
TCB primitives' interface which can't be fixed; i.e., the error cannot
be masked. TCB failures are caused by persistent inconsistencies
in critical system tables, by wild branches of the TCB code (possibly
caused by transient hardware failures), by power failures, by processor
failures, and so on. TCB failures always cause a system crash.
In systems providing a high degree of hardware fault tolerance,
system crashes still occur because of software errors. Since crashes
cause volatile storage to be lost, and since nonvolatile media
usually survive crashes, recovery mechanisms can reconstruct consistent
states in a maintenance mode of operation. After reconstructing
a consistent state, the recovery mechanisms restart the system
with no process execution in progress, e.g., processes that were
active, blocked, or swapped out before the crash are aborted. New
processes, which run the code of aborted processes executing at
the time of the crash, can be started by users after the consistent
state is reconstructed. Recovery mechanisms can reconstruct consistent
states by either removing or completing incomplete updates of various
objects represented on nonvolatile media. Properties of and design
approaches for recovery mechanisms able to reconstruct consistent
states from nonvolatile storage after TCB failures are discussed
in Section 3.2 and Chapter 4.
Some TCB failures allow a system to shut down in an orderly manner.
These failures may be caused by process swap-space exhaustion,
timer-interrupt table exhaustion, and, in general, by conditions
that can't be handled by TCB primitives themselves in normal modes
of operation. Traps originated by persistent hardware failures,
such as memory and bus parity errors, also may cause failures.
Media failures occur whenever errors are detected on some nonvolatile
storage device that the TCB cannot fix (i.e., the errors can't be
masked). Media failures are caused by hardware failures such as disk
head crashes, persistent read/write failures due to misaligned heads,
worn-out magnetic coating, dust on the disk surface, and so on. They
also are caused by software failures such as TCB failures which make
The effect of media failures is that part, or all, of the media
representing TCB objects become inaccessible and corrupt. Data
structures relevant to system security also may be corrupted by
media failures, e.g., object security labels. The system usually
crashes unless the lost data can be retrieved from archival storage
and rebuilt on a redundant storage device. Of course, media failures
that don't affect TCB objects may not cause system crashes. If
redundant media aren't available, or if users and administrators
don't keep archival data up-to-date, media failures may become
unrecoverable failures. Administrative recovery procedures may
have to be used to bring the system to a consistent state. As discussed
in Chapters 5 and 6, all these procedures should be explained in
the system's Trusted Facility Manual.
Failures induced by users, administrators, and operators cause discontinuities
of operation. Inside an operating system, discontinuities of operation
manifest themselves most often as state-transition failures, TCB
failures, and, less often, as media failures. They are caused by
erroneous actions, such as unexpected system shutdowns, e.g., by
turning off the power. Also, they can be caused by lack of action,
such as ignoring the exhaustion of critical system resources under
administrative control despite documented or on-line warnings, e.g.,
audit trail is 95% full, insufficient swap space left, inadequate
configuration installed, etc.
The effects of discontinuities of operation are the same as those
of the state-transition and TCB failures mentioned above. Recovery
mechanisms or administrative procedures necessary for the reconstruction
of a consistent state also are correspondingly similar to those
used for failures. For example, cancellation of a TCB primitive
call by depressing the "break" key during the call's
execution might have the same effect as a state-transition failure
detected by the TCB primitive. Each TCB primitive and state transition
would have to be designed either to ignore user cancellation signals
during execution of critical code sections or to clean up internal
data structures during the processing of such signals.
Actions such as system shutdowns by power-off action during execution
of TCB code may cause TCB failures. Recovery mechanisms for TCB
failures caused by power failures also may be able to handle unexpected
system shutdowns. In either case, during subsequent power-on procedures,
the TCB not only detects that TCB failures left the system in an
inconsistent state, but also initiates recovery of a consistent
state before the system enters the normal mode of operation.
Somewhat less often, administrator or operator actions cause
media failures. For example, initiation of on-line diagnostic tests
of a media controller during normal mode of system operation, instead
of the maintenance mode, would most likely cause media failures.
Similarly, initiation of TCB maintenance actions such as disk reformatting
in the normal mode of operation would certainly cause subsequent
media failures. Discontinuity of operation caused by administrator-
or operator-induced failures may require use of administrative
The properties of trusted recovery are defined in terms of two notions:
secure states and secure state transitions. A system state is secure
whenever consistency invariants derived from valid interpretations
of security and accountability models are satisfied. A state transition
is secure if both its input state and its output state are secure,
and it satisfies the constraints placed on it by valid interpretations
of security policy and accountability policy models.
Accountability models include models of user authentication,
trusted path, and audit. The notions of invariants for secure states
and constraints for specific state transitions are briefly illustrated
in this chapter and discussed in detail in reference . Reference
 discusses the notion of a valid interpretation of a security
model in detail and reference  illustrates it. For the sake
of brevity, interpretations of security models aren't illustrated
in this guideline.
State-machine (or "state-transition") models of security,
such as the Bell La Padula model , define a state in terms of
the following abstract variables:
These abstract variables are used in defining state invariants that
help define the notion of the secure state. The following paragraphs
labeled (1)-(5) discuss the use and characteristics of state invariants
for trusted recovery.
- a. subjects (trusted and untrusted)
- b. objects
- c. access privileges
- d. access matrix (defining the privileges of subjects to objects)
- e. current access set (defining the privileges subjects can
currently exercise over objects)
- f. security function (defining the subject's maximum and current
subject clearance and the object classification)
- g. object hierarchy
(1) Security in variants are derived formally from security model
State-machine models also include conditions, or axioms, whose
interpretations in a given system provide invariant properties
which must be satisfied by secure states. For example, the conditions
of the Bell-La Padula model include the following:
The model description  precisely defines the specific meaning
of these conditions in terms of the variables of the system states
and the examples of their valid interpretations.
- a. the simple-security condition for subjects
- b. the *-property for the security function
- c. the discretionary security condition for access privileges
of current access sets
- d. the compatibility condition for object hierarchies
(2) Informally derived in variants should augment formally derived
invariants whenever necessary.
State-transition models might not include all the conditions
that are relevant to the notion of security or accountability.
Whenever this is true, new invariants need to be defined to augment
the set of existing invariants derived from interpretation of model
conditions (or axioms). For example, additional invariants may
be defined for objects such as the password file, user-account
file, security map file, and system configuration file, which are
used by trusted processes of a system supporting the Bell-La Padula
model. These invariants may refer to multiple types of objects,
as illustrated in this example:
User and group identifiers may be included in a password file, a
user account file, and a file defining group membership. Additional
invariants also may be needed for areas of security and accountability
policy where the interpretations of the model's conditions provide
insufficient detail for a given system. For example, an in- variant
that is specific to TCBs implementing Multics-like access control
lists (ACLs)  for discretionary access control may state:
- In all system states, all user and group identifiers must be
unique, integer values; the identifiers' length may vary from
zero to a defined maximum number of characters.
Similar invariants also should augment other areas of access control
and accountability (e.g., invariants for user and system security
profiles including minimum and maximum user clearances and object
classifications; invariants for audit mechanisms).
- In all system states, the entries of an ACL must be sorted
- <user id.group id > entries precede <user id.* > entries
- <user id.* > entries precede < *.group id > entries
- < *.group id > entries precede < *.* > entries
- where "*" represents the wild-card qualifier.
Recovery mechanisms of a TCB become trusted only if they maintain
secure states in the normal mode of operation, or detect insecure
states and reconstruct secure states in the maintenance mode of
operation, despite the occurrence of failures and discontinuities.
To detect insecure states after system failures or to verify that
recovered states are secure, recovery mechanisms must check whether
security invariants are satisfied. All security invariants are
relevant to the recovery mechanisms handling state-transition failures.
These failures usually leave the system in the normal mode of operation,
instead of causing the system to enter maintenance mode. Therefore,
all invariants which must hold in the normal mode of operation
also must hold after recovery from state-transition failures.
(3) Some security invariants may be irrelevant for trusted recovery.
Not all security invariants are relevant for other classes of
failures. For example, consider the case of TCB failures when all
volatile memory is lost and the system enters maintenance mode.
In maintenance mode, consistent states are recovered, security
invariants are checked, and the system is placed back in normal
mode of operation in a secure state that usually includes an empty
set of user processes (i.e., untrusted subjects) and a corresponding
empty current access set.
In most system-recovery designs, recovery mechanisms restart
only a few of the trusted processes (e.g., the "login" process
listening to terminals). User processes in execution at the time
of TCB failure are aborted because their state is lost either along
with the loss of volatile memory or during the recovery of secure
states. Users can start new processes executing the code of these
aborted processes after the system is placed in normal mode of
operation. Therefore, after TCB failures, recovery mechanisms need
not check invariant properties referring to the current access
For example, from the set of the invariants derived from the
conditions of the Bell-La Padula model, only those corresponding
to the simple-security condition and from the compatibility condition
remain relevant for trusted processes and for the object hierarchy,
respectively, after system crashes. However, if the current state
of at least some user processes can be recovered after a TCB failure,
other invariants derived from the conditions of the Bell-La Padula
model (e.g., the *-property), also become relevant. Thus, the types
of relevant invariants depend on the type of desired and possible
system-state recovery (e.g., a state with no active processes),
no opened files or devices, or a state with at least some active
processes, opened files and devices. The type of system-state recovery
is determined by either the designers choice or by other, non-TCSEC
requirements. However, a complete set of security invariants should
be derived from interpretations of security models for any type
of system-state recovery.
(4) All TCB integrity invariants should be satisfied by trusted
To detect insecure states, or to verify that recovered states
are secure, recovery mechanisms also must verify whether integrity
invariants of the TCB are satisfied. Internal TCB integrity invariants
do not necessarily refer only to state variables defined by user-level
security or integrity models. They also may refer to internal TCB
variables used for object and subject representation, and may not
be visible either at the user nor at the administrative interface
of the TCB. For example, internal TCB-integrity invariants may
require the satisfaction of the conditions below.
For all recovered states:
a. A disk sector is either free or allocated.
b. The sum of free and allocated disk sectors equals the total
number of disk sectors.
c. Every allocated disk sector occurs exactly once in exactly
one object representation,
and all free disk sectors do not belong to any object.
d. All active objects are reachable from the root of their hierarchy.
e. If an object's link count or reference count is zero, neither
a link nor a reference exists
to that object.
Most operating systems provide recovery mechanisms which attempt
to detect internal inconsistencies after crashes and to recover
consistent states. [1, §5.18] provides examples of internal operating
system invariants for the UNIX file system which are enforced by
the file system checking program "fsck."
(5) Lack of security invariants makes trusted recovery impossible.
The key role of secure-state determination in trusted recovery
underlines the importance of security invariants. Lack of such
invariants makes it impossible to determine whether TCB primitives
can tolerate state-transition failures, i.e., whether TCB primitives
clean up temporary state modifications before they return to their
caller. Similarly, lack of security invariants make it impossible
for the recovery mechanisms and procedures to determine whether
the recovered state is secure even if all state transitions are
designed to satisfy all model's constraints in the face of "expected" failures
and discontinuities of operations, discussed in Section 3.2. "Unexpected" TCB
failures, media failures, or discontinuities may still leave the
system in insecure states. Whether such states are secure or insecure
can only be determined by verifying the state invariants.
A secure state transition originating from a secure input state guarantees
that (1) its output state is secure, and that (2) all security constraints
defined for it are satisfied. In contrast with an invariant, which
is defined on the variables of individual states and holds for all
state transitions, a constraint is a predicate that relates the variables
of two or more states. A constraint may be relevant only to specific
state transitions. A typical constraint is the following:
This constraint expresses a policy requirement that users can only
upgrade, but not downgrade, the classification of an object. Other,
similar constraints can be found in the appendix of reference ,
and in reference .
- For any TCB primitive which changes the security level of an
object, the new level must dominate the original security level
of the object.
(1) Trusted recovery requires the satisfaction of all constraints.
TCB primitives implement secure state transitions. The primitives
may temporarily place the system in insecure states before they
return to their caller. Any failure or discontinuity of operation
during a state transition may leave the system in an insecure state.
Furthermore, even if the recovered system state appears secure,
it's possible that the constraints placed on the secure state transition
(during which the TCB failed) are violated as a result of the failure.
For example, consider a state transition which changes the security
level of an object and satisfies the constraint defined above in
absence of failures. Because a security level may be a multi-field,
multi-word data structure, any update to it requires the execution
of several instructions including at least one I/0 instruction.
A failure may occur in the middle of the security level update;
e.g., a power failure during the disk-write operation may leave
the security level only partially updated. This may violate the
constraint defined above but may not affect any state invariant.
The update may have changed the clearance field and some, but not
all, of the category fields of the security level before the failure.
As a consequence, the resulting object security level would no
longer dominate the original object security level, violating the
above constraint. However, it's possible the resulting object security
level satisfies all state invariants, such as those derived from
the interpretation of the simple- security and compatibility conditions
of the Bell-La Padula model. Recovery mechanisms would have no
way to detect whether the recovered state, which would include
the update, is insecure.
Similar, and more probable, problems may appear when the TCB
crashes in the middle of writing a label of a newly created file,
in the middle of a security map update by a system-administrator
process, or in the middle of an update to a file containing an
access control list or any other security-relevant data structure.
The notion of atomicity, discussed in the paragraph below labeled
(2), would prevent this type of recovery problem from violating
Recovery mechanisms can detect that the system is in an insecure
state following a TCB or media failure, after extensive, time-consuming
checks of security in- variants, without relying on special designs
of TCB code implementing secure state transitions. However, seldom
are the recovery mechanisms able to recover an old secure state,
or construct the new secure state from nonvolatile media, without
relying on special design and implementation of TCB code that anticipates
various types of failures.
Because constraints relate variables of old states with those
of the new states created by secure state transitions, failures
may make it impossible to verify constraints. In other words, the
values of the old states may no longer be available, whereas the
values of the new states may not be fully updated at the time of
the failure. Thus, it's important to design the TCB code implementing
state transitions so assurances provide the recovery of either
the secure input state or the secure output state of a transition.
In the latter case, the recovery mechanism should be guaranteed
to satisfy the transition's security constraints---not just the
(2) Atomicity of all TCB primitives ensures trusted recovery.
Atomicity is the key property of the TCB code implementing secure
state transitions, enabling the recovery mechanisms to reconstruct
secure states despite the occurrence of (anticipated) failures.
Assuming that all state transitions can be serialized by concurrency
control mechanisms , a state transition is "atomic" in
the face of failures if it's either carried out completely or has
no effect at all. In practice, this property implies that the TCB
code implementing state transitions is designed to ensure that,
for the class of anticipated failures, the recovery mechanisms
are always able to reconstruct either input secure states or output
secure states after failures.
The literature describes various approaches for providing atomicity
at the operating system level [16, 21, 23, 25, 27], and at the
data base management system level [14,15]. We summarize these approaches
in Chapter 4.
(3) Atomicity of all TCB primitives is not always necessary for
In many operating systems or TCB primitives, it may be difficult
to ensure that all secure-state transitions are atomic. Some operating
system primitives consist of many individual object updates, and
atomicity requires the implementation of these primitives as "transactions" (defined
in Section 4.2.2 and in references [14,15,16, 21,23,25,27]). The
performance penalties and complexity of implementing transactional
behavior in all TCB primitives might be prohibitive for many small
In many small operating systems, a more practical approach is
taken to the design of TCB primitives and object representations
to aid recovery mechanisms in the detection of inconsistencies.
It's acceptable to implement TCB-primitive mechanisms which only
help detect inconsistent (insecure) states after crashes, but do
not ensure atomicity of secure-state transitions. These implementations
leave the task of reconstructing consistent or secure states to
administrative users and tools. The choice of which TCB primitives
should be made atomic (if any) or which TCB primitives should only
help detect insecure states after crashes (but not be atomic) belongs
to the system designers.
An example of a file system design allowing the detection of
inconsistent states by a "scavenging" process is provided
in . The scavenging process recovers files whose representation
is intact, and deletes files whose representations become inconsistent
after crashes. To a large extent, the UNIX system calls are designed
to ensure that the "fsck" program can detect a variety
of file system inconsistencies after crashes, with only some facilities
for consistent state recovery without administrative intervention,
viz., [1, Chs. 5.16-5.18] and . Section 4.2 presents examples
of design considerations for TCB primitives which help the recovery
mechanisms detect and correct inconsistencies.
In this chapter we discuss the responsibilities of administrative
users in trusted recovery, outline some practical difficulties in
designing trusted recovery mechanisms, and summarize several nonexclusive
design approaches to recovery that may be used in trusted systems.
We also review the main options for trusted recovery available to
operating system designers. The primary goal of this chapter is to
give the reader an overview of the recovery design issues presented
in the literature and implemented in various systems during the past
The responsibilities for trusted recovery fall into two categories
depending on the type of failure that occurred: (1) TCB design responsibility,
and (2) administrator responsibility. State-transition failures are
routinely handled by designs of TCB primitives without placing the
system in maintenance mode. Controlled system shutdown and subsequent
rebooting also is performed by the TCB with little or no administrative
intervention, viz., the "fsck" program of UNIX.
In contrast, emergency system restarts and cold starts are performed
primarily by system administrators using TCB-supported tools. Among
the system administrators, the System Programmer role is responsible
for trusted recovery functions (e.g., consistency checks on system
objects, on individual TCB files and databases, repair of damaged
security labels, and so on ). The Security Administrator also
may perform recovery responsibilities whenever the System Programmer's
role is not separately identified by the system's design.
The System Programmer role may have additional tools necessary
for checking the integrity of TCB structures and the security invariants
of the initial state, i.e., for establishing the initial secure-system
state. The determination of this state is similar to the determination
of whether a recovered state is secure. However, the initial system
state may not necessarily be identical to a recovered state because,
unlike a recovered state, the initial state may not contain any
user-visible objects. Thus, fewer invariants may be relevant for
determining the security of the initial states.
Tools such as the ones suggested in reference , for identifying
vulnerabilities of certain system states, also may be useful both
for establishing secure initial states and recovered states. Because
some of the tools used for detecting insecure states and for repairing
various system data structures place the TCB in maintenance mode
(e.g., fsck tools [1, 5]), the use of these tools should be restricted
to the System Programmer role.
The key role of secure state invariants and of state-transition constraints
in trusted recovery suggests that designs of B3-A1 systems should
use state-machine models of security policy , instead of other
types of models, such as information flow models, which are not defined
in terms of secure states and secure-state transitions. Although
in principle this suggestion appears to be sound, in practice the
existing state-machine models of security policy, such as , are
not fully adequate for designing trusted recovery mechanisms. This
is the case for at least the following two reasons.
First, when current state-transition models are interpreted,
the state invariants and transition constraints for trusted processes
acting on behalf of system administrators are inadequate in number.
Second, extant models do not include accountability properties
of secure systems, thus making the formal derivation of accountability
invariants and constraints impossible. The apparent reason for
these inadequacies of extant state-machine models is that they
are too abstract to include system- specific invariants and constraints
for the areas mentioned above.
Invariants and constraints that need to be defined for trusted
processes and for administrative programs in the accountability
area are significantly more numerous and complex than those derived
from extant state-machine models for other TCB areas. An attempt
to define state invariants in the trusted process area ---for formal
security-verification purposes, not for trusted recovery---is reported
in . Appendix E of reference  defines a fairly extensive
list of invariant conditions for state variables in the accountability
area for the specific purpose of verifying the security of initial
and recovered system states.
Lack of formal invariants and constraints for state variables
and state transitions of trusted processes and accountability programs
makes it difficult to determine formally whether TCB primitives
can tolerate even state-transition failures, e.g., determine formally
whether inconsistent states are cleaned-up properly before primitives
return to callers. To determine formally whether recovery mechanisms
can reconstruct current states, or complete state transitions in
maintenance mode after expected TCB or media failures, is a challenging
task for anyone. However, informal derivation of system-specific
invariants and constraints is acceptable for design of trusted-recovery
mechanisms so long as evidence is provided of their correct and
extensive use in design of these mechanisms. Such use represents
significant added assurance these mechanisms are designed correctly.
Operating systems' responses to failures can be classified into three
general categories: (1) system reboot, (2) emergency system restart,
and (3) system cold start .
System reboot is performed after shutting down the system in
a controlled manner in response to a TCB failure. For example,
when the TCB detects the exhaustion of space in some of its critical
tables, or finds inconsistent object data structures, it closes
all objects, aborts all active user processes, and restarts with
no user process in execution. Before restart, however, the recovery
mechanisms make a best effort to correct the source of inconsistency.
Occasionally, the mere termination of all processes frees up some
important resources, allowing restart with enough resources available.
Note that system rebooting is useful when the recovery mechanisms
can determine that TCB and user data structures affecting system
security and integrity are, in fact, in a consistent state.
Emergency system restart is done after a system fails in an uncontrolled
manner in response to a TCB or media failure. In such cases, TCB
and user objects on nonvolatile storage belonging to processes
active at the time of TCB or media failure may be left in an inconsistent
state. The system enters maintenance mode, recovery is performed
automatically, and the system restarts with no user processes in
progress after bringing up the system in a consistent state.
System cold start takes place when unexpected TCB or media failures
take place and the recovery procedures cannot bring the system
to a consistent state. TCB and user objects may remain in an inconsistent
state following attempts to recover automatically. Intervention
of administrative personnel is now required to bring the system
to a consistent state from maintenance mode.
A possible view of automated recovery mechanisms for TCBs would be
to consider all internal TCB data structures and seCurity attributes
as a database. This view is useful because significant technological
advances in database consistency and recovery have been made in the
last decade; in principle, one could use these advances for the design
of trusted recovery for TCBs. For this reason, we review possible
approaches used in data management and other storage systems for
implementing atomic actions and transactions.
An alternative approach to recovery, used mostly at the operating
system level, relies on detection of inconsistencies caused by
failures during non-atomic state transitions and subsequent correction
of those inconsistencies. This approach, generally called the "optimistic" approach
to recovery (and to the serializability of actions), assumes that
TCB failures are rare, and therefore the overhead penalties of
its extensive recovery mechanisms don't affect the overall performance
significantly. In general, the optimistic approach to recovery
has better overall performance than approaches which make all state
transitions atomic, but recovery is significantly more difficult
to design. Section 4.3.4 provides examples of operating system
mechanisms that help detect TCB inconsistencies after failures.
An action is atomic if it's unitary and serializable; it's unitary
if it either happens or has no effect; it's serializable if it's
part of a collection of actions where any two or more actions relating
to the same object appear to execute in seemingly serial order [14,15,21,25,27].
A transaction consists of a sequence of read and write actions, and
is atomic if its entire sequence of actions is unitary and serializable.
Examples of TCB primitives which should be implemented as atomic
actions or transactions include updating a password file, updating
a security map, changing a security level, changing a user security
profile, updating an ACL, and linking or unlinking an object to a
Three basic techniques are used to implement atomic actions and
(1) update shadowing, (2) update logging, and (3) combinations
of update shadowing and logging. A major difference between shadowing
and logging is that systems using shadowing accomplish all updates
to redundant disk pages or files until all updates of an atomic
transaction are finished, and then introduce these updates into
the original system data; whereas systems using only logging write
each update on a log first and then update the original system
data directly, i.e., the updates are done in place.
The advantages and disadvantages of both alternatives, the storage
and I/O requirements for nonvolatile memory, and the notions of
two-phase commits in transaction implementations are discussed
The central idea behind making a TCB primitive behave as an atomic
transaction is that of updating the primitive in two phases. First,
all the updates of the primitive are collected in a set of "intentions," without
changing the system's data, i.e., the updates are not performed in
place. The last action of the primitive is to commit its updates
by adding a special "commit" record to the set of intentions.
Second, the updates of the intentions set replace the original
data in the system, making the updates visible to other system
actions or transactions.
If a crash occurs after the commit record is written, but before
all intentions replace the original data on nonvolatile storage,
the second phase is restarted by the recovery mechanisms as often
as necessary (because there may be subsequent crashes during recovery),
without leaving any undesirable side effects. Thus, the recovery
mechanisms can complete a state transition interrupted by the crash
by carrying out all update intentions. Then the set of intentions
The recovery mechanisms are able to construct the new secure
(output) state which would have been produced by the state transition
had failure not interrupted it. If a crash occurs before writing
the commit record, the recovery mechanisms can only find, or reconstruct,
an incomplete set of intentions on nonvolatile storage and erase
them. Thus, the recovery mechanisms retain the original secure
(input) state prevailing before the crash interrupted the state
To ensure that the above scheme works correctly for an expected
set of TCB and media failures, the nonvolatile media must be designed
in such a way that (1) the recovery mechanisms can find or reconstruct
complete sets of intentions after a crash or determine the intentions
list is incomplete (e.g., no commit record is found for it); and
(2) the action which writes the commit record, and therefore completes
the set of intentions, is itself atomic.
To ensure property (1) above, redundant storage is used to represent
sets of intentions, e.g., a pair of related disk pages are written
sequentially with the same intention data. The placement of each
page of a pair on nonvolatile media, which defines the pair's relationship,
is chosen so at least one of the two pages survives all "expected" failures.
For example, if the redundant storage containing intentions lists
is expected to survive disk-head crashes, the disk should be duplexed
and page "a" on the first disk also is written as page "a" on
the second disk. However, if the redundant storage is only expected
to survive disk-read failures, page "a" also is written
as page "f(a)" on the same disk, where the function "f" defines
the relationship between the addresses of the two pages. The only
inconsistency-detection and reconstruction tasks to be performed
relate to the recovery of complete intentions sets after each crash.
Note that the inconsistency-detection and reconstruction tasks
are placed at a low level within the TCB and, therefore, need not
concern themselves with the maintenance of type properties of various
objects the TCB may have updated at the time of the crash.
To ensure (2) above, the last disk-write operation to the intentions
set, which commits the transaction, should be implemented with
a single hardware-provided I/0 instruction that's either atomic
or detectably non-atomic with respect to the set of expected failures.
Most commercially available I/0 hardware satisfies this requirement.
This scheme, called shadowing, was conceived by Lampson and Sturgis
in 1976, was reported in detail in , and was implemented in
several distributed storage systems at Xerox PARC [20,23,25,27].
Mechanisms which assure that a TCB primitive exhibits transaction
atomicity and which are based on logging assume that nonvolatile
storage exists which can be made reliable enough to survive all expected
failures, e.g., by storage duplexing. With logging, each update of
a TCB primitive, including both the original object values and the
update values, is written onto a log represented on nonvolatile storage
before the object being updated is actually modified in storage,
i.e., updated in place. The last action of the primitive is to write
a commit record on the log, signifying the end of the primitive's
If the system crashes before the commit point, the entire TCB
primitive, i.e., transaction, is aborted. Because the log is written
before any individual update is made in place, all updates can
be undone during recovery merely by reading the log records of
the primitive and restoring the original values saved in the log
entries. Complex consistency checks are unnecessary. Thus, the
recovery mechanisms can retain the original (input) state prevailing
before the state transition was interrupted by the crash. This
protocol is called "the write-ahead log" protocol in
[14,15] and implemented in . However, if the system crashes
after writing the commit record onto the log, then all updates
of that TCB primitive can be redone from the log records. Thus,
the only reconstruction activity remaining is that of restoring
object contents from the log records.
Logging mechanisms similar to the one just outlined have been
used in database management systems for a long time. Complete description
of similar logging mechanisms, which in practice also may include
state check pointing and transaction save pointing features, are
found in [14, 15], and in systems reference manuals of many commercially
available database management systems .
Both logging and shadowing have relative advantages and disadvantages.
These are discussed in . Gray et al. point out that the performance
characteristics of shadowing make it a desirable mechanism for small
databases and systems, whereas logging is desirable in large database
systems. In practice many systems combine both mechanisms to retain
the advantages of each [15,16].
In general, operating systems and TCBs maintain relatively small
databases for implementing security policies. Many of the extant
operating systems, such as UNIX, already use simple versions of
file shadowing to do some atomic actions and transactions. Few
operating systems implement logging at the TCB level for recovery
reasons. Logging is used mostly at the application level, outside
Both informal  and formal  proofs of correctness for
recovery mechanisms using shadowing, or shadowing and logging,
are in the literature. All these proofs make only informal assumptions
of failure behavior.
Many of the extant operating systems take an "optimistic" approach
to recovery. Designs of such systems assume failures requiring system
restart are rare. Therefore, the performance penalties in normal
mode of operation and design complexity caused by TCB primitives
with atomic behavior may be unwarranted. Whether such penalties are
significant is still a matter of some debate. For some performance
figures the reader should consult references  and .
Subtle system-specific properties are encountered in designs
of TCB primitives that don't support atomic state transitions but
nevertheless help ensure that the recovery mechanisms can reconstruct
a consistent system state. In this section, we present an example
of a generic source of inconsistency caused by TCB crashes and
illustrate specific properties of non-atomic TCB primitives enabling
recovery of consistent, secure states. Of course, these properties
aren't necessarily sufficient for trusted recovery. Although other
similar properties may be found for trusted recovery, demonstrating
their sufficiency for trusted recovery with non-atomic TCB primitives
remains a challenge of individual system design.
A typical inconsistency caused by TCB crashes appears in operating
systems maintaining several related data structures within the TCB
to enable the sharing, protection, and management of objects. For
example, user-level references to an object, which are stored in
directories, typically point to a single "object map" (e.g.,
an entry in the "object map table," in the "master
object directory," in the "global object table," in
a "volume table of contents," or an i-node in the "i-node
space"). This map contains various fields defining object attributes
such as length, status (active/inactive, locked/unlocked, access
and modification time, etc.), access privileges or ACL references,
and a list of memory blocks allocated to the object referenced by
the map. The map identifies the object's representation on secondary
storage. A copy of all the object maps representing active objects
is kept in primary memory. These copies identify the representation
of objects in a cache of active objects. The memory blocks allocated
to the object representation may themselves contain user- level references
to other objects, e.g., whenever the object is a directory.
Any TCB primitive which deletes such an object has to invalidate
and/or deallocate at least two of the three related data structures,
viz., the object representation and the object map. In most systems,
the outstanding user-level references to the deallocated object,
e.g., user-directory entries for the deallocated object, also have
to be invalidated or deleted. Capability-based systems are an exception
to this because capabilities are user-level object references which
can't be reused owing to their use of system-wide unique identifiers
The invalidation or deletion of the three types of related structures
(user-level references ~ object map ~ object representation) during
a TCB-primitive invocation should be performed in a single atomic
action or transaction. Similarly, any TCB-primitive invocation
which creates an object and a reference to it would have to allocate
all three related structures in a single atomic action or transaction.
Should the TCB primitives allocate/deallocate the three related
structures independently using non-atomic actions, crashes between
the allocation/deallocation of one of the related structures and
the rest might leave references pointing to nonexistent objects,
causing a "dangling-reference" problem. Alternatively,
such crashes might leave references to already allocated objects
of other users, causing an "object-reuse" problem.
Some designs of TCB primitives enable recovery mechanisms to reconstruct
consistent states without requiring atomicity of (all) TCB primitives
and (all) object updates. We present two properties of TCB designs
below illustrating this fact.
Example 1---Ordered Disk-Writes within TCB Primitives
TCB primitives which allocate,1deallocate TCB structures, such
as the three related structures mentioned previously, could order
their write (update) operations to nonvolatile storage in such
a way as to prevent both dangling references and object reuse problems
after crashes. Consider the following order of updates and requirement
for synchronous writes:
The usefulness of ordering disk-writes in all relevant TCB primitives
is apparent when one considers the effects of system crashes and
subsequent TCB rebooting. Suppose the order of disk-write operations
mentioned above does not hold for a TCB primitive which deallocates
an object along with the last reference to it. In this scenario,
the object map and representation could be deallocated first, and
their corresponding tables could be updated by two disk-write operations
before the object containing the user-level reference would be updated.
- (1) In any TCB primitive which deallocates user-level references,
object map, and object representations within one invocation,
the necessary diskwrite operations should follow the direction
of references; i.e., the objects containing the user-level reference
should be written to the disk first, the objeCt map next, and
the object representation last.
- In any TCB primitive which allocates user-level references,
object map, and object representation within one invocation,
the necessary disk operations should follow the direction opposite
to that of references; i.e., the object representation should
be written to the disk first, the object map next, and the object
containing the user-level reference last.
- (2) All disk-write operations of a TCB primitive which updates
user-level references, object map, and object representation
within one invocation, should be synchronous; i.e., the caller
should not be allowed to proceed until the disk-write operation
A crash occurring after the completion of the first two disk-write
operations leaves the user-level reference dangling. This requires
the recovery procedures to search the entire directory system to
find the dangling reference (if any) before the TCB is rebooted
and before the deallocated object map and representation space
are reallocated. Should this not happen, or should recovery procedures
fail to discover dangling references after crashes, the system
might enter an insecure state causing object-reuse problems. A
similar problem appears when the crash occurs after the deallocation
of the object representation but before the deletion of the object
map and the user-level reference.
In contrast, if the disk-write operations required by object
deallocation and reference deletion are ordered as suggested in
requirement (1) of Example 1, a crash between two consecutive disk-write
operations could only cause objects or their maps to become inaccessible.
This might cause a denial-of-service problem but not an object-reuse
For example, a crash could occur after the last user-level reference
was deleted, and after the corresponding disk-write was completed,
but before the disk writes required by the object map and representation
deletions could be completed. Both the object representation and
map become inaccessible to any user-level programs.
Object inaccessibility also could be caused by crashes occurring
after both user-level references and object map are deleted. However,
to handle object inaccessibility, recovery procedures need only
do "garbage collection" operations. Should these operations
(inherently simpler than those finding all dangling references)
not be done or should they fail to find all inaccessible objects
after a crash, denial-of-service (but not security policy violations)
may occur. This example shows that the proper ordering of disk-write
operations in all relevant TCB primitives helps reduce the security
vulnerability of a system after crashes.
The requirement (2) above for synchronous disk-write operations
is necessary to preserve the ordering of disk-writes suggested
in requirement (1). Asynchronous disk-write operations don't necessarily
preserve such ordering.
Similar disk-write ordering rules apply to multi-leaf trees of
references. Such a tree appears in sets of related data structures
(user-level references ~ object map ~ object representation) when
a reference to a separate ACL object is placed in, or is implicitly
associated with, the object map (i.e., object map ~ object representation
and object map ~ ACL). In such a case, both the object representation
and the ACL should be created before the object map, and the object
map should be deleted before both the object representation and
the ACL. Failure to order the disk- write operations in the proper
sequence may cause the reuse of the ACL with foreign objects after
crashes. This would represent a serious access control problem
if left uncorrected.
Example 2---Redundancy of TCB Storage Structures
The idea of maintaining redundant storage for critical data structures,
enabling recovery mechanisms to reconstruct consistent system states,
is neither new nor novel. Similar ideas have led to the use of "double-entry
bookkeeping" in accounting systems to accomplish similar goals.
Furthermore, it could be argued the design approaches for atomic
actions or transactions of TCB primitives ---as discussed in the
previous section ---also use redundant storage structures. We suggest
here that redundant storage structures can be used solely to aid
recovery mechanisms to detect, and possibly correct, inconsistent
TCB structures, and not necessarily to provide failure atomicity
for all TCB primitives.
Although minimized TCBs, as those required for security classes
B3 and A1 are likely to present at their interface only objects
with a very simple structure, e.g., segments as opposed to files,
the representation of these objects on nonvolatile storage usually
requires the maintenance of other more primitive structures. The
discovery of inconsistent or even inaccessible objects after a
crash, but not necessarily the provision of atomic object updates,
can be assured by maintenance of redundant, low-level TCB structures.
For example, consider a system in which a segment representation
on the disk consists of a set of not necessarily contiguous pages
(i.e., disk sectors) identified by an index page. To enable recovery
mechanisms to detect inconsistent segment structures, redundant
structures can be maintained independently of index pages that
define the unique association between object identifiers and pages.
All TCB primitives would be designed to reflect every update of
an index page in the redundant structure also, and vice versa;
however, updates would be reflected only after disk writes to originals
had completed successfully (i.e., disk writes to index pages are
synchronous). Recovery mechanisms would detect, and possibly correct,
inconsistencies of segment representation by comparing the contents
of index pages with those of the corresponding redundant structures.
The additional ability to detect which of the two structures is
affected by a failure, and the ability to ensure that one of the
two structures survives all expected failures, enables recovery
mechanisms to correct either one of the two structures, as necessary.
Redundancy of segment representation structures can't guarantee
that the segment contents would be internally consistent, nor that
they would be consistent with the contents of other segments. Failure-atomicity
of TCB primitives wouldn't be guaranteed in any way by the maintenance
of redundant structures suggested in Example 2, although similar
structures could be used as the basis for additional mechanisms
which would implement failure atomicity .
Recovery procedures should be restartable after repeated crashes,
and every time they're restarted, the TCB should be left in no worse
state than before. This property is called idempotency, and should
exist regardless of the type of diskwrites or redundancy used within
the TCB. Repeated crashes of recovery procedures would have no undesirable
side effects in the system's TCB. Although recovery procedures of
systems supporting atomic TCB primitives and transactions also must
be idempotent, the demonstration of idempotency of these procedures
seems significantly simpler than in systems in which failure-atomicity
of TCB primitives isn't supported. The idempotency property of recovery
mechanisms using "intention sets" ---discussed in Section
188.8.131.52---is presented in .
Example 1 --- The UNIX File System
The ordering of synchronous disk-write operations is enforced
by UNIX kernels . For example, whenever the "unlink" primitive
deletes the last link to an object and deallocates the object,
and whenever the "creat" primitive allocates an object
and places a reference to it in a directory, the disk-write operations
are ordered as suggested in (1) of Section 184.108.40.206 and are performed
synchronously. User-level references are represented in UNIX by
i-node numbers in directory entries, object maps by -nodes, and
object representations by disk blocks. Reference [1, ch. 5] describes
the negative consequences of not ordering the disk-write operations,
and of not doing them synchronously.
The UNIX program "fsck" is also a good example of a
typical recovery program. Fsck detects dangling i-nodes and i-node
numbers, duplicate i-nodes associated with the same disk block,
unbalanced i-node references and object links, as well as lost
and corrupted i-nodes and disk blocks. However, for dangling i-nodes
and -node numbers, duplicate i-nodes associated with the same disk
block, and unbalanced i-node references and object links, "fsck" requires
the intervention of administrative users to resolve inconsistencies.
As pointed out in , seldom is enough information available enabling
administrators to make correct decisions and resolve inconsistencies.
Suggested changes proposed in  would help administrators make
sound low-level recovery decisions. Thus, not only should non-atomic
system primitives be designed to support recovery but recovery
mechanisms should enable administrators to make correct recovery
Example 2---The Cambridge File Server
The Cambridge File Server (CFS) actually implements failure-atomic
updates of individual files . Although a good example of disk
redundancy, the mechanism provided by CFS can be used to guarantee
only that recovery mechanisms can reconstruct consistent file structures,
not necessarily file Contents.
In the CFS, a file's representation on the disk consists of one
or more index pages pointing to data pages. A file can be viewed
as a single-root tree whose nodes are index pages and whose leaves
are data pages. CFS maintains a redundant structure, called the
cylinder map, to represent the relationship between file identifiers,
file pages, and page status for all objects of each disk cylinder.
Each cylinder map entry contains (1) the unique identifier of the
file to which the defined page belongs, (2) the tree address occupied
by the page in the file representation, and (3) the allocation
and use state of the page. Thus, each disk page is defined by its
entry in the cylinder map and by its position in the tree of pages
representing the structure.
The CFS primitives update the cylinder maps only after a file's
tree is updated consistently. Thus, the CFS recovery procedures
can rebuild the file system structure using redundant information
after a crash-producing failure. For example, whenever a crash
corrupts a file's index page, the recovery procedures search the
cylinder maps to find all pages belonging to that file. At the
end of the search, all pages referenced by the corrupted index
page and their tree positions are found, and the corrupted index
page can be reconstructed. Conversely, whenever a cylinder map
is corrupted by a crash, the recovery procedures examine each file
structure starting at the root of the file system to find all disk
pages belonging to the corrupted cylinder map. At the end of the
search, which may include the entire file system and may take as
long as half an hour with current disk technology, the corrupted
cylinder map is reconstructed.
The cylinder maps of the CFS are used for additional functions,
including that of keeping status information for pages of intention
sets. Although the use of the redundancy function of cylinder maps
in providing recoverable storage for implementing atomic actions
has been less successful than that used in shadow paging ,
the use of this function for automated recovery of file system
structures is quite adequate.
Example 3---Selective Atomicity
Another approach to recovery in a secure state without using
atomic TCB primitives is "selective atomicity." Selective
atomicity means that only a subset of the TCB actions are atomic
when operating on a specific subset of TCB objects. The intent
is to preserve the consistency of the representation of certain
objects (e.g., those implemented in nonvolatile storage) and object
hierarchies (e.g., file systems) but not necessarily of object
contents. Whenever it's security-relevant, the consistency of object
contents is left in the care of the particular application. Special
atomicity mechanisms maintain the consistency of the content of
security-relevant objects -a small subset of all system's objects.
The advantages of using the selective-atomicity approach are
that the performance penalties of full atomicity are avoided and
system recovery in a secure state is simplified. For example, recovery
programs could restore the structure of a file system (including
directories, disk blocks, and indices to physical records), minimizing
administrative intervention -a feature not found in most recovery
programs such as the "fsck."
Selective atomicity exists in the AIX system version 3.1. In
this system, a fairly robust file system is obtained by implementing
atomic updates for segments that contain directories, i-nodes,
and indirect file blocks. Also, any change to the disk- block allocation
map is atomic . The implementation of the atomicity features
is based on logging using a concept called "database memory," because
of its resemblance to the logging features of database management
systems . Note that the selective atomicity implemented in AlX
3.1 does not refer to non-kernel objects (e.g., objects implemented
by system processes). Thus, a TCB using the AlX 3.1 kernel would
have to carry out atomic or recoverable actions within trusted
processes whenever such actions are required.
The design and implementation of trusted recovery mechanisms and
procedures should include the following nonexclusive options:
Options (3) and (4) above suggest that expected TCB or media failures
caused by either spontaneous events or user-, administrator-, or
operator-induced discontinuities may create secure states which,
nevertheless, violate integrity and availability requirements of
user applications. Clearly, if the recovered state differs from either
the secure input or secure output states of the transition during
which the failure occurred, then both "lost" updates and "dirty" reads
are possible [13,14]. However, options (3) and (4) are still acceptable
for systems evaluated under the TCSEC because the TCSEC does not
include application integrity and availability requirements.
- (1) For the set of all state-transition failures, TCB recovery
code should ensure the restoration of the secure input state;
i.e., remove all temporary modifications of the secure state
which violate security invariants.
- (2) For the set of expected TCB or media failures (appropriately
chosen by the system designers), TCB code that causes state transitions
should be designed, whenever possible, to make secure-state transitions
atomic; i.e., the recovery mechanisms should reconstruct either
the secure input states or the secure output states of those
- (3) For the subset of state transitions that aren't atomic
in the face of expected TCB or media failures, the recovery mechanisms
should detect that these state transitions have left the TCB
in insecure states. TCB-supported administrative tools should
enable the reconstruction of a predictable secure state, with
or without administrative-user intervention. This state may differ
from both the secure input and output states of the transition
during which the failure occurred.
- (4) For the complementary set of "unexpected" or
rare TCB and media failures, administrative procedures and tools
(used to restore a predictable secure state) should be defined
and documented. This secure state also may differ from both the
secure input and output states of the transition during which
the failure occurred.
If user applications require higher degrees of integrity and
availability than those supported by the TCB, they could always
implement additional, separate recovery mechanisms. In fact, this
approach is taken by most current applications including database
management systems [14,15]. This approach is also sound from a
system architecture point of view because it separates application
recovery mechanisms from those of the TCB. Support of application
level recovery within the TCB is both unnecessary and unwarranted.
It's unnecessary because application portability rules out reliance
on the recovery features of a specific TCB, and thus applications
tend to implement their own recovery features. It's unwarranted
because it violates the class B3-A1 requirement for TCB minimality
and increases the assurance burden.
Trusted recovery requires that the state-transition models used
for secure system design include both state invariants and transition
constraints. A model that includes only state invariants is inadequate
because trusted recovery requires that state-transition constraints
be satisfied (viz., discussion in Section 3.2). Similarly, a model
that includes only transition constraints is inadequate because
the occurrence of unanticipated failures and discontinuities of
operations may prevent the system from completing state transitions
and place it in insecure states. These states can only be determined
to be insecure after checking that secure-state invariants are
not satisfied (viz., discussion in Section 3.1).
The reader should note that state-transition models of security
policy are particularly suitable for the design of trusted recovery
mechanisms. Because these models include the notion of secure states
and secure state transitions, they can be integrated with recovery
models, all defined in terms of states and state transitions (which
are possibly different). Unlike the state-transition models, information
flow and noninterference models don't include explicitly the notions
of state and state transitions, and thus are more difficult, if
not impossible, to use for defining formally the notion of trusted
recovery. Furthermore, information flow and noninterference models
cover nondiscretionary access controls and thus lack discretionary
access control and other policy components. This makes the use
of such models impractical for the formal definition of trusted
Security policy and accountability requirements of the TCSEC are
only indirectly relevant to trusted recovery. That is, specific requirements
of these areas, which may be relevant to trusted recovery, have already
been levied on trusted facility management functions and interfaces
. In this chapter, we focus only on the TCSEC areas specific
to trusted recovery; we discuss the relevance or irrelevance of specific
Most of the assurance requirements of the TCSEC apply to trusted
recovery because trusted-recovery code is part of a system's TCB.
Some TCSEC assurance requirements become irrelevant because interfaces
to trusted recovery functions are either invisible to users or, whenever
they are visible, can be used only by administrative personnel authorized
by trusted facility management. The user visibility of trusted recovery
interfaces, or lack thereof, is established under the assurance requirements
of trusted facility management , and therefore we don't repeat
In the operational assurance area, only the trusted facility
management and the system architecture areas have specific requirements
relevant to trusted recovery. Because system integrity requirements
refer to the diagnostic testing of the hardware and firmware elements
of the TCB, they have no special relevance here beyond that of
addressing hardware/firmware elements that may include recovery
mechanisms. Covert channel analysis of TCB interfaces offered by
trusted recovery isn't necessary.
Administrative users are the only users who may use trusted recovery
mechanisms. They have multi-level access to system and user data
and are trusted to maintain the data secrecy and not exploit covert
channels while operating in administrative roles. Thus, administrative
users must be cleared to the highest level of data classification
present on the system. Furthermore, all code implementing trusted
recovery functions should be scrutinized to ensure, to the largest
extent possible, these functions don't contain any Trojan Horses
or Trap Doors.
Most system-architecture requirements of the TCB apply to trusted-recovery
code. For example, TCB programs and data structures implementing
trusted recovery must comply with the following requirements:
Since trusted recovery is used mostly in maintenance mode when all
storage, segmented or not, must be available to recovery code, most
protection mechanisms are disabled. Thus, application of the least
privilege principle and insistence on use of logically distinct objects
with separate attributes is less obvious here than when mechanisms
are used in the normal mode of system operation.
- a. Satisfy modularity requirements.
- b. Make significant use of abstraction and information hiding.
- c. Use layering of recovery functions.
- d. Satisfy the requirements of the least privilege principle
to the largest possible extent.
The only trusted facility management requirement affecting trusted
recovery is that of segregating the security-relevant from the
security-irrelevant administrative functions. Because trusted recovery
functions are obviously security relevant, they must be allocated
either to the System Administrator or to the System Programmer
In contrast with the operational assurance, all areas of life-cycle
assurance are relevant to trusted recovery. These areas are security
testing, design specification and verification, configuration management,
and trusted distribution.
The purpose of testing trusted recovery mechanisms is to uncover
design and implementation flaws allowing failure recovery to place
the TCB in insecure states. The major issue in this area is delimiting
the scope of security testing, i.e., reconciling the general objectives
and practices of security testing with the limited coverage of failures
and discontinuities of operation which is possible in practice.
The objectives of security testing suggest that security testing
should be performed using test fixtures external to the TCB, should
not require TCB instrumentation, should be repeatable, and should
include precise coverage analysis. For testing trusted recovery
functions, only the requirements of class B3 are relevant because,
as discussed below, formal top-level specifications aren't necessary
for trusted recovery, viz., .
However, only state-transition failures and discontinuities of
operation (but not all TCB and media failures) can be generated
from outside the TCB in a repeatable manner and without any TCB
instrumentation. Whenever TCB and media failures cannot be generated
from outside the TCB in a repeatable manner and without any internal
TCB instrumentation, design and implementation analysis and review
are necessary to determine whether the recovery mechanisms can
handle the untested failure responses. State-transition failures
can be generated using similar test-plan structures and programs
as those used for security testing of other TCB areas, e.g., testing
security policy enforcement and covert channel bandwidth.
Discontinuities of operation can be generated using administrative
interfaces in ways causing at least some TCB, and possibly media,
failures repeatedly. In contrast, spontaneous TCB and media failures
cannot be regenerated without software and hardware instrumentation
of the TCB. Use of such instrumentation would violate one of the
major objectives of security testing. Recall that TCB instrumentation
is undesirable because either it precludes testing the system in
normal mode configuration or it leaves test fixtures that may become
exploitable Trap Doors in the TCB. Therefore, security testing
of trusted recovery functions is limited to the use of test plans,
i.e., test conditions, data, and coverage analysis, which cover
only state- transition failures and discontinuity of operation,
as defined in Chapter 2. Within this limited context, all conventional
security-testing requirements and recommendations are applicable.
Inherent inability to define formal models of TCB failures and discontinuities
of operations (viz., Chapter 2 of this guideline and reference ),
and general lack of formal models of trusted facility management
and administrative roles, makes the TCSEC requirement for top-level
specification correspondence with the formal policy model irrelevant
to trusted recovery. However, the requirement for use of a security
policy model, and more precisely for a state-machine model, is relevant
to trusted recovery in two areas.
First, state-machine models enable designers and implementors
to define the notions of secure system states and state transitions.
These notions are the key to trusted recovery as they provide the
security invariants and constraints recovery mechanisms should
satisfy. Recovery functions earn their trust only if they satisfy
these invariants and constraints, as discussed in Chapter 4.
Second, the response of TCB primitives to state-transition failures
(defined in Chapter 2) is modeled by formal security-policy models
and specified by top-level specifications. For example, the Bell-La
Padula model represents a clear, albeit incomplete, attempt to
model these failures through the provision of the "error" and "?" elements
of the TCB response set (Dm) to invocations of TCB requests (Rk)
. Thus, the specification of error messages and exceptions provided
by TCB primitives in response to state-transition failures also
is required for trusted recovery reasons.
All configuration management requirements of classes B3 and A1 apply
All trusted distribution requirements of class A1 apply to the TCB
functions and interfaces implementing trusted recovery as stated.
Most documentation requirements of the classes B3 and A1 apply to
trusted recovery as stated in each evaluation class. However, some
requirements, such as those stating the need for a Security Features
Users' Guide (SFUG) and for covert channel documentation, are obviously
not relevant. The SFUG is relevant for non-administrative users whereas
trusted recovery is exclusively a responsibility of system administrators.
The administrators are implicitly trusted not to disclose classified
and proprietary information they can obtain from the system directly
without having to use covert channels.
The Trusted Facility Manual (TFM) requirements are not only relevant
but important to trusted recovery. The TFM must include the description
of procedures necessary "to resume secure system operation after
any lapse of system operation." Thus the TFM should include
a description of the types of TCB failures and discontinuities of
operation and a list of procedures, tools, warnings, and examples
of how these failures might be best handled.
All TCB recovery procedures must be defined in the TFM. These
procedures include analyzing system "dumps" after crashes,
crash-recovery and restart actions, checking the consistency of
TCB files and directories, changing system configuration parameters
(e.g., table sizes, devices and device drivers, etc.), running
periodic system-integrity checks, and repairing object inconsistencies
and damaged labels. A list of the approved tools for TCB recovery,
relevant commands, exceptions, warnings, and advice also should
be in the TFM.
The trusted recovery testing documentation consists of test plan,
test program, and test result documentation. The general structure
of the trusted-recovery test plan and test results is the same as
that of all other test plans and results. For example, the test plans
should contain a test condition section, a test data section (i.e.,
including a test environment setup, test parameters, and expected
test outcomes), and test coverage analysis.
However, the content of these sections should differ substantially
from that of other test plans. For example, the test conditions
should identify the type of discontinuity of operation (and the
induced TCB or media failure) generated by using the administrative
interfaces for the current test. In the test data area, the environment
setup should define the system initialization data, including TCB
and user-level data structures and objects, which are necessary
to generate the specified discontinuity of operation. The parameters
and the commands used by administrators to generate discontinuity
of operation also should be listed.
The outcomes of the test should include the specification of
the automated (e.g., reboot, warm-start) procedures and of the
manual (e.g., cold-start, emergency restart) procedures for trusted
recovery and their expected effects on the system.
The coverage analysis should explain the scope of the tests in
terms of the classes of discontinuities covered by the test and
the classes of spontaneous failures remaining uncovered because
of inability to induce them by administrative action.
The documentation of the trusted-recovery design should include the
following items corresponding to the B3 and A1 requirements of the TCSEC:
The accuracy of the design documentation should be commensurate with
that of other similar documentation for B3 and A1 systems. In this
area there are no substantive differences between the B3 and A1 requirements.
This is true for the same reasons as those discussed in the design
specification and verification area.
- a. Description of the anticipated classes of failures and discontinuities
of operation handled, automatically or using administrative procedures,
by trusted recovery.
- b. Trusted recovery philosophy (e.g., use of failure-atomicity
in the design of TCB primitives, of non-atomic actions which
allow recovery of secure states, the type of recovered secure
states-input-secure state, output- secure state of a transition,
or some arbitrary secure state).
- c. Warnings about the "unanticipated" failures that
can't be handled in a routine manner.
- d. State-security invariants and constraints maintained by
- e. Descriptive Top-Level Specification (DTLS) of the TCB primitives
implementing trusted-recovery functions.
In the TCSEC, there are no requirements for Trusted Recovery for
security classes below class B3. Furthermore, security policy and
accountability requirements which also may apply to trusted recovery
are already included in the requirements for trusted facility management
. This chapter includes only additional requirements and recommendations
specific to trusted recovery.
The TCB programs and data structures implementing trusted recovery
must meet the following requirements:
Trusted recovery functions shall be assigned exclusively to administrative
personnel with security-relevant responsibility, e.g., System Programmer
or Security Administrator roles .
- a. Satisfy modularity requirements.
- b. Make significant use of abstraction, information hiding,
and layering in the design and implementation of trusted recovery
Security testing requirements of class B3 apply to the functions
and interfaces of the TCB for user-induced failures (i.e., for state-transition
failures as defined in Chapter 2 of this guideline), and to functions
and interfaces of administrative roles but only for discontinuities
generated by administrative personnel. See discussion in Section
DTLSs of the TCB functions and interfaces implementing trusted recovery
must be maintained that completely and accurately describe these
functions and interfaces in terms of exceptions, error messages,
All configuration management requirements of class B3 apply to trusted
recovery as stated.
- a. A formal security model should be used to define the TCB
response to state-transition failures (defined in Chapter 2 and
discussed in Section 5.2).
- b. A formal security model should be used for the derivation
of the security policy invariants and constraints used for the
design of trusted recovery.
- c. Additional invariants and constraints should be used for
the design of trusted recovery in the accountability area as
The following items should be included in the trusted recovery section
of the Trusted Facility Manual:
All test documentation requirements of class B3, except those for
covert channel testing (viz., Section 5.1), apply to the TCB functions
and interfaces implementing trusted recovery as stated. The test
plans for trusted recovery should include the following:
- a. Procedures for analysis of system dumps, for consistency
checking of TCB objects, and for system cold start and emergency
- b. A description of the types of tolerated failures and examples
of the recommended procedures for responding to such failures.
- c. Procedures for running periodic integrity checks on the
TCB database and for repairing damaged security labels.
- d. Procedures for handling inconsistencies of the system objects
(e.g., duplicate allocation of disk blocks to objects, inconsistent
- e. Lists of commands, system calls, and function definitions
for trusted recovery (whenever these aren't documented in the
- f. Examples of, and warnings about, potential misuse of trusted
- a. Test conditions; i.e., a list of discontinuities of operation
that can be generated through administrative interfaces and their
effects on the system.
- b. Test data, consisting of the following:
- (1) Environment setup; e.g., the TCB and user-level data
structures and objects needed to generate the planned discontinuity.
- (2) Parameters and commands used by the administrators
to generate the discontinuity.
- (3) Expected outcome; e.g., the type of procedures that
are started automatically or manually for handling the
generated discontinuity and the effect of those procedures
on the system state.
- c. Coverage analysis; e.g., this includes a list of failures,
or classes of failures, whose effect is covered by the generated
discontinuities, and a list of spontaneous failures, or classes
of failures, whose effect isn't covered by the test.
All requirements of the security class B3 are included here. The
only additional requirements are in the following life-cycle assurance
- Documentation shall describe the following:
- a. Interfaces between the TCB modules implementing trusted
- b. Specific TCB protection mechanisms used ensuring trusted-recovery
functions are available only to administrative users.
- c. DTLS of the TCB modules implementing interfaces of trusted
recovery; (Formal Top Level Specifications (FTLS) aren't required
for trusted recovery interfaces---viz., relevant discussion in
 for administrative interfaces).
- Design documentation also should include a description of the
- a. Anticipated classes of failures and discontinuities of operation
handled by trusted recovery, automatically or using administrative
- b. Trusted recovery philosophy; viz., Section 5.3.
- c. Warnings concerning the "unanticipated" (i.e.,
rare) failures that can't be handled in a routine manner.
- d. State-security invariants and constraints maintained by
- e. DTLS of the TCB primitives implementing trusted-recovery
- The accuracy of the design documentation should be commensurate
with that of other similar documentation for B3 and A1 systems.
All additional configuration management requirements of class A1
apply as stated.
All trusted distribution requirements of class A1 apply to the TCB
functions and interfaces implementing trusted recovery as stated.
A specific type of interaction between a subject and an object
that results in the flow of information from one to the other.
See Security Administrator.
The official authorization that is granted to an ADP system to
process sensitive information in its operational environment, based
upon comprehensive security evaluation of the system's hardware,
firmware, and software security design, configuration, and implementation
and of the other system procedural, administrative, physical, TEMPEST,
personnel, and communications security controls.
To conduct the independent review and examination of system records
An authorized individual, or role, with administrative duties,
which include selecting the events to be audited on the system,
performing system operations to enable the recording of those events,
and analyzing the trail of audit events.
The device, or devices, used to collect, review, and/or examine
A chronological record of system activities that is sufficient
to enable the reconstruction, reviewing, and examination of the
sequence of environments and activities surrounding or leading
to an operation, a procedure, or an event in a transaction from
its inception to final results.
A restrictive label that has been applied to classified or unclassified
data as a means of increasing the protection of the data and further
restriCting access to the data.
A system failure that causes the processors' registers to be
reset to some standard values.
Information with a specific physical representation.
DESCRIPTIVE TOP-LEVEL SPECIFICATION (DTLS)
A top-level specification that is written in a natural language
(e.g., English), an informal program design notation, or a combination
of the two.
DISCRETIONARY ACCESS CONTROL (DAC)
A means of restricting access to objects based on the identity
and need-to- know of the user, process and/or groups to which they
belong, or based on the possession of system-protected tickets
that contain privileges for objects (e.g., capabilities). The controls
are discretionary in the sense that a subject with a certain access
permission is capable of passing that permission (perhaps indirectly)
on to any other subject.
FORMAL SECURITY POLICY MODEL
A mathematically precise statement of a security policy. To be
adequately precise, such a model must represent the initial state
of a system, the way in which the system progresses from one state
to another, and a definition of a "secure" state of the
system. To be acceptable as a basis for a TCB, the model must be
supported by a formal proof that if the initial state of the system
satisfies the definition of a "secure" state and if all
assumptions required by the model hold, then all future states
of the system will be secure. Some formal modeling techniques include:
state transition models, denotational semantics models, and algebraic
FORMAL TOP-LEVEL SPECIFICATION (FTLS)
A top-level specification that is written in a formal mathematical
language to allow theorems showing the correspondence of the system
specification to its formal requirements to be hypothesized and
An ordered list of actions (e.g., procedure calls, etc.) is said
to be idempotent if repeated incomplete executions of that list
of actions followed by a complete execution has the effect of a
single complete execution of that list of actions. An idempotent
action is a restartable action; i.e., if the action was in progress
at the time of a crash, the action can be repeated during crash
recovery with no undesirable side effects [14,21].
A passive entity that contains or receives information. Access
to an object potentially implies access to the information it contains.
Examples of objects are: records, blocks, pages, segments, files,
directories, directory trees, programs, bits, bytes, words, fields,
processors, video displays, keyboards, clocks, printers, and network
An administrative role or user assigned to perform routine maintenance
operations of the ADP system and to respond to routine user requests.
A protected/private character string used to authenticate an
A program in execution.
A fundamental operation that results only in the flow of information
from an object to a subject.
An administrative role or user responsible for the security of
an Automated Information System and having the authority to enforce
the security safeguards on all others who have access to the Automated
Information System (with the possible exception of the Auditor.)
The combination of a hierarchical classification and a set of
non-hierarchical categories that represents the sensitivity of
A map defining the correspondence between the binary and ASCll
formats of security levels (e.g., between binary format of security
levels and sensitivity labels).
The set of laws, rules, and practices that regulate how an organization
manages, protects, and distributes sensitive information.
SECURITY POLICY MODEL
A presentation of the security policy model enforced by the system.
It must identify the set of rules and practices that regulate how
a system manages, protects, and distributes sensitive information.
A process used to determine that the security features of a system
are implemented as designed. This includes hands-on functional
testing, penetration testing, and verification.
An active entity, generally in the form of a person, process,
or device, that causes information to flow among objects or changes
the system state. Technically, a process/domain pair.
An administrative role or user responsible for the trusted system
distribution, configuration, installation, and non-routine maintenance.
TOP-LEVEL SPECIFICATION (TLS)
A non-procedural description of system behavior at the most abstract
level; typically, a functional specification that omits all implementation
A hidden software or hardware mechanism that can be triggered
to permit system protection mechanisms to be circumvented. It is
activated in some innocent-appearing manner (e.g., a special "random" key
sequence at a terminal). Software developers often introduce trap
doors in their code to enable them to re-enter the system and perform
certain functions. Synonymous with back door.
A computer program with an apparently or actually useful function
that contains additional (hidden) functions that surreptitiously
exploit the legitimate authorizations of the invoking process to
the detriment of security. For example, making a "blind copy" of
a sensitive file for the creator of the Trojan Horse.
TRUSTED COMPUTING BASE (TCB)
The totality of protection mechanisms within a computer system---including
hardware, firmware, and software ---the combination of which is
responsible for enforcing a security policy. A TCB consists of
one or more components that together enforce a unified security
policy over a product or system. The ability of a TCB to enforce
correctly a unified security policy depends solely on the mechanisms
within the TCB and on the correct input by system administrative
personnel of parameters (e.g., a user's clearance level) related
to the security policy.
Person or process accessing an Automated Information System either
by direct connections (i.e., via terminals), or indirect connections
(i.e., prepare input data or receive output that is not reviewed
for content or classification by a responsible individual).
The process of comparing two levels of system specification for
proper correspondence (e.g., security policy model with top-level
specification, TLS with source code, or source code with object
code). This process may or may not be automated.
A fundamental operation that results only in the flow of information
from a subject to an object.
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