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Chapter One

Introduction


This is the second CALL Newsletter on information operations (IO) in support of peace operations. CALL Newsletter 99-2, Task Force Eagle Information Operations: IO in a Peace Enforcement Environment, January 1999, explains the elements of IO as they are applied to peace operations. This newsletter builds on 99-2 and provides lessons learned and TTPs identified by Task Force Eagle (TFE) in Operation JOINT FORGE (OJF). This chapter presents a review of current Army IO doctrine.

Army doctrine for Information Operations is still evolving and Field Manual 100-6, Information Operations, the keystone IO manual, first published in August 1996, is undergoing review and change as Joint and Army IO doctrine is refined and updated. Information Operations (IO) in a military-operations-other-than-war (MOOTW1) environment is still a developing area of doctrinal thought as Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTPs) are still emerging and evolving in the field in the contingency operations, such as OJF in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The current Army IO doctrine manual emphasizes repeatedly that IO takes place across the operational continuum; however, as the published doctrine focuses primarily on combat operations, leaders faced with the challenge of employing IO in MOOTW find themselves having to interpret doctrine to apply it to a different set of tasks.2

Joint Doctrine for IO was recently published as Joint Publication 3-13, Joint Doctrine for Information Operations.3 This joint publication builds upon, but does not supersede Joint Publication 3-13.1, Joint Doctrine for Command and Control Warfare, 07 February 1996.4 Emerging Army IO doctrine will follow the construct of IO presented in the joint doctrine.

Field Manual 100-6, August 1996, defines Information Operations as "continuous military operations within the MIE (Military Information Environment) that enable, enhance and protect the friendly force's ability to collect, process and act on information to achieve an advantage across the full range of military operations. IO include interacting with the global information environment and exploiting or denying an adversary's information and decision capabilities."5 This definition specifies the operating environment for IO, which is the MIE. The MIE is that military portion of the Global Information Environment which consists of ".information systems (INFOSYS) and organizations - friendly and adversary, military and non-military, that support, enable, or significantly influence a specific military operation."6

IO are comprised of the three interrelated components of Operations, Relevant Information and Intelligence (RII), and INFOSYS. The Army uses three operations to conduct IO: 1) command and control warfare (C2W); 2) civil affairs (CA), and; 3) public affairs (PA). Grouping the five elements of C2W together with CA, and PA as specific information operations provides a framework to promote synergy and facilitates planning and execution. All military activities conducted as part of these operations are classified within the two disciplines of C2-Attack and C2-Protect. Emerging Army IO doctrine uses the terms Offensive IO and Defensive IO, which are roughly synonymous with C2-Attack and C2-Protect, respectively. C2-Attack is offensive IO which is intended to gain control of the adversary's C2 function in terms of his information flow and his situational awareness. Effective C2-Attack allows friendly forces to either destroy, degrade, neutralize, influence, or exploit the enemy or adversary's C2 functions. Successful C2-Protect operations ensure effective C2 of friendly forces "by negating or turning to a friendly advantage the adversary's efforts to influence, degrade, or destroy friendly C2 systems."7

Operations.

C2W. Historically, the Army planned and executed the various elements of command and control warfare independently of one another.8 Successful C2W operations support the Army objective of achieving information dominance in any operational environment. Current IO doctrine combines the five elements of C2W into one integrated approach. Emerging Army IO doctrine de-emphasizes the term C2W and elevates the five elements of C2W as elements of IO along with Information Assurance, Physical Security, Counter Deception, Counter Propaganda, Counterintelligence, and Special Information Operations. Under current Army IO doctrine, the five elements of C2W are:

  • Operations security (OPSEC);
  • Military deception;
  • Electronic Warfare (EW);
  • Psychological Operations (PSYOP), and;
  • Physical Destruction.

PA. Public Affairs operations provide information about ongoing operations to the American soldier and the American public. PA operations enable the commander to effectively operate with the media and pull information from the media that is of value to the commander and his forces. PA facilitates media on the battlefield to tell the story of the operation to the public. PA keeps the command informed through command information program, which explains the purpose of the operation to soldiers and leaders and what their expected role is in support of it.

CA. Civil Affairs operations secure local acceptance of U.S. forces by establishing the relationship between the military force, local civilian authorities, and interested international organizations (IOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and private volunteer organizations (PVOs).9 Successful CA operations support information operations through their daily interface with key organizations and individuals operating in the MIE.

Relevant Information and Intelligence.

Relevant information is defined as - "Information drawn from the military information environment that significantly impacts, contributes to, or is related to the execution of the operational mission at hand..(RII) serves as the currency of IO."10 Intelligence is "the critical sub-element of relevant information that focuses primarily upon foreign environments and the adversary. In support of friendly operations, intelligence helps produce a common, current, and relevant picture of the battlespace that reduces uncertainty and shortens the commander's decisionmaking process."11 This situational awareness, built from RII, shared throughout the force, is referred to as the Relevant Common Picture (RCP). "Relevant information drawn from the MIE supports the creation of situational awareness that contributes directly to effective C2 during all stages of the decision and execution cycle."12 The commander specifies information requirements in the form of CCIR and PIR that drive the information collection process and assets.

INFOSYS.

"INFOSYS include personnel, machines, manual or automated procedures, and systems that allow collection, processing, dissemination, and display of information."13 INFOSYS covers all of the links in the chain of actions and procedures that turn information into knowledge that will support the commander's decisionmaking process, maintain an accurate view of his battlespace, coordinate operations, and shape the MIE. INFOSYS disseminate the accurate view of the battlespace up and down the force giving leaders greater situational awareness (SA). INFOSYS provides the means to share SA throughout the friendly force in the form of the Relevant Common Picture (RCP). "Relevant information drawn from the MIE supports the creation of situational awareness that contributes directly to effective C2 during all stages of the decision and execution cycle."14

INFOSYS include both military command, control, and communications systems and non-military communications systems and organizations that provide information and contribute to decisionmaking such as IOs, PVOs, NGOs and forums of civil and military decisionmakers.

A Model of Current Army IO Doctrine Applied to Peace Operations

Endnotes, Chapter One

1. The term "MOOTW," which is acceptable Joint terminology, is used throughout this newsletter as the Army's term of OOTW has been supplanted in some circles with support operations and stability operations. For the definition of MOOTW, see The DoD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, Joint Publication 1-02, downloaded from http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/doddict/.
2. Headquarters, Dept. of the Army, Information Operations, Field Manual 100-6, (Washington, DC: USGPO, 27 August 1996, hereafter cited as Field Manual 100-6, Information Operations). The manual devotes only three pages to a discussion of the unique considerations for OOTW, a rather broad category of military operations, of which peace operations are merely a sub-set.
3. Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Doctrine for Information Operations, Joint Publication 3-13, (Washington, DC: USGPO, 09 October 1998).
4. Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Publication 3-13.1, Joint Doctrine for Command and Control Warfare, (Washington, DC: USGPO, 07 February 1996).
5. Field Manual 100-6, Information Operations, p. 2-3.
6. Ibid., p. 1-4.
7. Ibid., p. 2-5.
8. Ibid., p. 3-0.
9. IOs are organizations with global or extra-regional influence - examples include the International Committee of the Red Cross, or the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). NGOs are transnational organizations of private citizens that maintain a consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the UN. PVOs are typically non-profit organizations involved in humanitarian efforts. See Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Force Capabilities, Joint Publication 3-33, (Preliminary Coordination Draft, Washington, DC: USGPO, 30 January 1998), p. IV-10.
10. Field Manual 100-6, Information Operations, p. 4-0.
11. Ibid., p. 4-3.
12. Ibid. p. 4-1.
13. Ibid. p. 5-0.
14. Ibid. p. 4-1.



Foreword
Chapter Two: The Division IO Staff