COLLAGES OF IMAGES REPRESENTING THE THREE
COMPONENTS OF IO:
RELEVANT INFO & INTELLIGENCE, INFORMATION
SYSTEMS AND OPERATIONS (OPSEC,
DECEPTION, PSYOP, ELECTRONIC WARFARE, PHYSICAL DESTRUCTION,
PUBLIC AFFAIRS AND CIVIL AFFAIRS)
COMPONENT IMAGES SHOULD BE SIMILAR TO "INFORMATION
DOMINANCE" BLACK BOOK LOGO, WHICH INCLUDES SOLDIERS AT COMPUTER TERMINALS,
AN AIRBORNE COMM CENTER, C2 VEHICLES, AND A COMBAT SOLDIER LISTENING TO
RADIO. THIS IMAGE WOULD BE APPROPRIATE FOR THE INFORMATION SYSTEMS COMPONENT
CSA/SEC ARMY Statement 1
CDR TRADOC Statement 2
Operating Environment 3
Information Dominance 4
Information Operations (IO)
IO Components 6-8
Relevant Info & Intelligence
Information Systems 6-7
Impact of IO 8
The Army's IO Campaign Plan
IO Campaign Objectives 10-12
Improve C2-Protect Capabilities
Improve C2-Attack Coordination
Support Battlefield Visualization
Capitalize on Force XXI AWEs
Department of the Army
Washington, D. C.
through Information Dominance"
With the publication of FM
100-6, Information Operations, we now have the doctrine for Winning the
Information War. Information Operations will be integral to all Army Operations
in the 21st Century. Our Information Operations concept envisions a full
spectrum force capable of decisive victory through the rapid attainment
of campaign objectives with minimal risk to our most valuable assets ...
These 21st Century military
operations will be heavily based on knowledge derived from relevant information
and intelligence collected, processed, analyzed and disseminated over
a complex global system of systems.
This evolving military information
environment will fundamentally change the way we, the Army, conduct operations
in peace, conflict and war. Information Operations include all measures,
both offensive and defensive, taken to achieve information dominance.
Information Operations will be integrated into every aspect of Army XXI.
Victorious military operations
demand the successful conduct of Information Operations. There are few
greater challenges facing us today or in the future.
Dennis J. Reimer
Togo D. West, Jr.
General. U.S. Army
of the Army
Chief of Staff
U. S. Army
Training and Doctrine Command
Fort Monroe, Virginia
Age is upon us."
We must change. That much
is certain. This brochure outlines a major change as we grow into the
future -- Information Dominance. This is sparked by the ongoing information
revolution that we see around us every day. Todayís youth are not afraid
of technology and are more comfortable with computers than bicycles. Virtually
everything we touch -- phones, televisions, radios, even our cars -- has
been made faster, more efficient, or otherwise improved by the information
revolution. The Army is capitalizing on this wave of the future.
As we change some things
will remain constant. Successful information operations as outlined in
FM 100-6 will enable Army XXI to achieve decisive victory at minimal cost
while fulfilling our four traditional roles :
any adversary to do our will
any potential adversary from threatening our national interests
our friends and allies of our support
our friends, allies, and domestic population in times of crisis or
Technology has enabled a
breakthrough in how we do business. Already it has increased the pace
of daily operations, so we know it will provide commanders more information,
and potentially more time, to make decisions. Information technology provides
more information -- vital information -- across the breadth of the battlefield,
ensuring that those who need to know will know. It's basically information
that tells us three things: where I am, where you are, and where the enemy
is, all with a greater degree of certainty than ever before. Information,
and our ability to move it rapidly around the operational area, is allowing
us to conduct business in an environment no longer constrained by the
physical geography around us.
That's power, and we're calling
it a common relevant picture, that provides situational awareness. This
is about shared, accurate information -- between and among leaders, commands,
weapons platforms, soldiers, and industry. We are taking advantage of
the power of information technology to build this capability into our
force. That is what will enable Army XXI to revolutionize the way the
Army moves, shoots, and communicates.
Read this pamphlet. Study
it. Then read FM 100-6, our capstone publication for information operations.
We will not fully realize the potential of the information revolution
without human influence and the understanding of soldiers and leaders
who link and integrate information, technology, and action.
William W. Hartzog
General, U. S. Army
The Army is changing the
way it does business because of rapid advances in technology, especially
in the information arena. Today's environment has become increasingly
complex and will become even more so in the future. Developments in information
technology are revolutionizing how nations, organizations and people interact.
The Army is taking full advantage of the capabilities that this dynamic
A global information environment
(GIE) electronically links organizations and individuals around the globe.
Characterized by a merging of civilian and military information networks
and technologies, this interconnection of communications networks, computer
data bases and consumer electronics puts vast amounts of information at
a user's fingertips.
Current and emerging electronic
technologies permit a global audience to view every aspect of a military
operation in near real time. This worldwide telecommunications web transcends
military, media and nongovernmental entities. It includes many actors,
agencies, and influences outside the traditional view of military conflict.
The military information
environment (MIE) consists of both friendly and adversary military and
nonmilitary information systems. It also includes organizations that support,
enable or significantly influence a military operation.
into space from the home station to the area of operation.
into time, from the alert phase through the redeployment phase.
across purposes, from tactical missions to economic end states.
people, from deployed soldiers and families at home to local or regional
populations and global audiences.
Within the context of the
MIE, the information revolution offers the Army unique opportunities as
well as some formidable challenges. Responding to this environment, the
Army is preparing for operations today as well as in the 21st Century.
Information Operations integrate all aspects of information to accomplish
the full potential for enhancing the conduct of military operations. In
the simplest form, they are the activities that gain information and knowledge
and improve friendly execution of operations while denying an adversary
similar capabilities by whatever means possible.
The military objective remains
to enter an operational theater capable of achieving superior combat power
against an enemy or to establish situational dominance in support and
stability operations. By enabling the commander to attain information
dominance, information operations plays a key role in achieving victory
in military operations.
Information dominance is
"the degree of information superiority that allows the possessor
to use information systems and capabilities to achieve an operational
advantage in a conflict or to control the situation in operations short
of war, while denying those capabilities to the adversary." (FM 100-6)
We achieve information dominance
by gaining a knowledge advantage over an adversary. Creating information
dominance has two equally important facets:
and protecting friendly information capabilities.
degrading, or destroying adversary information capabilities.
Throughout history commanders
have sought to leverage the temporary advantage that comes from an information
advantage, whether it comes from knowledge of terrain or satellite imagery.
Achieving a knowledge advantage requires a highly developed sense of information
requirements and an ability to manage the collection, processing, use
and dissemination of that information to the right place, at the right
time, for the desired purpose.
Impact of Information
Successful Information Operations
achieve information dominance and provide commanders with an information
advantage over their adversaries. As a result, commanders make more timely
decisions and perform the basic combat functions (move, strike and protect)
nearly simultaneously with minimum degradation of combat effectiveness.
Prior to the start of the
Information Age, units were able to perform one activity well (for example,
move) at one time; with serious limitations in the other two (strike,
With detailed and timely
knowledge of friendly and enemy activity, a leader can move faster, strike
harder with greater precision, and protect the unit more economically
Operations (IO) are:
operations within the military information environment that enable, enhance,
and protect the friendly force's ability to collect, process, and act
on information to achieve an advantage across the full range of military
operations. Information Operations include interacting with the global
information environment and exploiting or denying an adversary's information
and decision capabilities." FM 100-6"
Units conduct IO across the
full range of military operations, from peace to conflict to war. IO are
instrumental in enabling the Army as part of a joint force to develop
and execute flexible deterrent options which preclude a crisis from escalating
into conflict. IO are equally relevant in humanitarian assistance missions,
such as disaster relief; peacekeeping as occurred in Haiti; and peace
enforcement operations as executed in Bosnia.
Activities to support IO
include acquiring, using, protecting, managing, exploiting and denying
command, control, communications, computer and intelligence (C4I) systems
. These activities take place within the three interrelated components
information and intelligence
1. Relevant Information
& Intelligence (RII)
RII is the IO component that
enables commanders to make faster and better decisions through expeditious
collection, filtering, focusing, fusing and dissemination of information
and intelligence. Ultimately, decisive IO depends upon the right person,
receiving the right information at the right time. For better decisions
commanders need more timely and accurate information, which increases
certainty and avoids ambiguity resulting from overload. Organizations
and procedures must adjust now to master the richer information flow and
faster pace of modern warfare.
ultimate benefit of the RII process is that commanders gain situational
awareness; achieve battlefield visualization; and apply responsive
C2 means to achieve rapid victory with minimum casualties.
linked processes to collect, process and provide accurate and timely
friendly, adversary and nonmilitary information required for planning
and current operations.
friendly and adversary IO capabilities and vulnerabilities.
near real time Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB).
2. Information Systems
Advanced Information Systems,
including the personnel and equipment to manage, display, transport and
disseminate information are the key to Force XXI digitization, battlefield
visualization and rapid decision making necessary for victory.
The information revolution,
highlighted by the proliferation of satellite communications and rapid
advances in network and computer technology, is providing commanders with
Military and nonmilitary
information systems combine to provide a global capability to support
commanders and units across the range of operations. Given the requirement
to conduct force projection and split based operations, interoperability
and flexibility are critical imperatives of our information systems.
The Army's integrated architecture
of advanced information systems maximizes the command and control while
ensuring interoperability as part of a joint force.
Information systems enable
the current situation.
joint air and naval support.
weapon systems targeting parameters.
close, deep and rear operations
The integration of information
systems, both vertically and horizontally, facilitates tactical and operational
agility, initiative, depth, synchronization and versatility.
ARMY BATTLE COMMAND SYSTEM
Migration to the Army Battle
Command System ensures a common C2 operating environment at all levels
and should enhance joint and coalition operations. Projecting, constructing
and protecting the Warfighter Information Network provides flexible, global
Information Systems Tasks
the Army Battle Command System to present a relevant common picture
and support situation awareness.
global and regional connectivity to interface with foreign and domestic
simulations for IO mission planning, rehearsal and decision making.
C2-Attack activities influence,
degrade or destroy the adversary's information collection, processing
and transmission capabilities, reducing his ability to make valid and
C2-Protect activities protect
our collection, processing and transmission capabilities and prevent the
adversary from determining our plans and intent.
Public Affairs communicates
accurate, balanced and credible information to critical leaders and the
public to influence their perceptions, understanding and decisions.
Civil Affairs establishes
relations among military forces, the public and
civil authorities to exchange information, builds understanding and gain
information that may be critical to decision making .
Integrated employment of
C2W, public affairs and civil affairs leads to synergy and effective execution
of C2-attack or C2-protect tasks.
denying, degrading, exploiting or influencing enemy or adversary C2
systems, using Command and Control Warfare (C2W) elements of OPSEC,
deception, PSYOP, electronic warfare (EW) and physical destruction.
friendly C2 systems from attack, protecting friendly information,
and/or concealing friendly intentions.
public affairs to explain intentions to leaders and the public.
Civil Affairs to improve relations and understanding with local governments,
coalition forces and indigenous people.
Impact of IO
While Information Operations
are not new, it is the application and synchronization of advanced technology
and the use of battlefield visualization that can create a victory-producing
knowledge advantage for our modern Army in peace, conflict and war.
Because IO drives this knowledge
advantage, it directly supports the Army goal of achieving land force
dominance quickly, decisively and with minimum casualties. Similarly in
crises or in support and stability operations IO is critical to making
more effective decisions and defusing crises.
Further, it enhances the
commander's lethal and non lethal means to achieve unit missions, while
deterring war and promoting peace.
Including Public and Civil
Affairs representatives in routine IO staff coordination further reinforces
mission achievement through peaceful, nonthreatening means. Through greater
integration and synchronization of PA and CA our C2W capabilities are
The Army's Campaign Plan
Goals: The goals of
this vision are to operationalize and institutionalize IO in the Army
and, concurrently, develop future tactics, techniques, procedures (TTP),
training , organizations and equipment to integrate IO into Army XXI.
The Plan HQDA is implementing
an IO Campaign Plan that provides a conceptual framework for current as
well as future Army IO initiatives. Current initiatives include implementing
actions associated with the DISC4 C2-Protect Library, TRADOC IO Requirements
Assessment and the Combined Arms Center (IO Proponent) Twelve Month Action
Execution To ensure
unity of effort HQDA has established an IO Triad consisting of the offices
of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans (DCSOPS), Deputy
Chief of Staff for Intelligence (DCSINT), and the Director of Information
Systems for Command, Control, Communications and Computers (DISC4) with
DCSOPS as lead.
DCSOPS coordinates, integrates, resources and prioritizes IO in the
Army. He ensures the Army in the field is organized, trained, and
equipped to conduct IO.
DCSINT ensures that the intelligence community provides timely support
to IO with relevant intelligence.
DISC4, as the Army's Chief Information Officer, leads C2-protection
and information system initiatives, to include the education and training
of users and system administrators to address growing information
Assistant Secretary of the Army (Research, Development and Acquisition
[RDA]), the Army Acquisition Executive and the Army Materiel Command
are the principal IO materiel developers. The RDA community leverages
technology to bring systems into the Army that will maximize and protect
our friendly IO capabilities and expand our ability to disrupt and
exploit our adversaries' capabilities.
will institutionalize IO through requirements definition, followed
by doctrine, training, leader development, organization and combat
At HQDA, implementation of the IO Campaign Plan is supervised
by a three-tiered committee structure:
Council of Colonels
General Officer Steering Committee (1 and 2-star level)
Information Operations Review Council (SIORC) (3-star level)
Annually, HQDA reviews execution
of the plan, highlighting successes and readjusting Army-wide efforts
to address identified shortfalls and opportunities.
TRADOC and AMC utilize Integrated
Concept Teams (ICT) and Integrated Product Teams, respectively, to supervise
campaign plan execution.
Ensuring "Victory Through
Information Dominance" involves the Total Army in the execution of
this IO Campaign Plan.
IO Campaign Objectives
1. Improve C2-Protect
C2-Protect focuses on minimizing
friendly vulnerabilities while reducing an adversary's ability to conduct
C2-attack. It truly transcends the range of military operations. During
crisis and conflict there is an integrated link between C2-protect and
C2-attack. With threats to our information systems increasing daily, we
must minimize our vulnerabilities at home station, as well as where we
are deployed. Our near term priority of effort is to implement the Army's
C2-protect program, including management and training plans.
Our overall approach is to
augment capabilities in the field with centralized assets. This includes,
as a minimum, establishing Army computer emergency response teams and
developing resident and exportable system administrator and user education
Training is the most important
component. A Quick Reaction Course for System Administrators in both exportable
and resident formats will start in FY98. An Information Systems Security
Managers (ISSM) Course is available now to train installation ISSMs. The
Battle Command Training Program (BCTP) and other major exercises provide
IO training for leaders and staffs.
The Army has adopted two
sets of C2-Protect Toolboxes to support tactical to strategic systems.
The DOS toolbox contains user oriented tools; the UNIX toolbox supports
administrators in detecting and preventing unauthorized network intrusions.
Research, Development and Acquisition initiatives are to develop and/or
adopt additional tools to secure our systems, especially those associated
with the Warfighter Information Network.
The Land Information Warfare
Activity (LIWA), located at Fort Belvoir, Virginia, has activated the
Army Computer Emergency Response Team (ACERT) Coordination Central. LIWA
is the focal point for reporting Army computer incidents and can deploy
teams to support Army computer facilities that experience intrusions.
Subject to funding, the Army will establish regional CERTs in the Pacific,
Europe and CONUS.
The acquisition of firewalls,
Secure Network Servers, cryptographic devices and other security related
devices will continue to be a priority to protect Warfighting and installation
Training leaders and soldiers;
distributing toolboxes; improving response to intrusions; and acquiring
new security technologies, are the keys to effective C2-Protect capabilities.
2. Improve C2 Attack Coordination
Detailed planning and coordination
of C2 Attack means are critically important to timely and effective exploitation
and attack of adversary or enemy C2 capabilities. Tools are being developed
to assess the advantages of collecting adversary C2 information versus
degrading or destroying a C2 node.
Procedures are being refined
to coordinate the efforts of PSYOP, electronic warfare, land forces and
fire support means in attacking C2 targets. Better technology and procedures
will improve "sensor to shooter" response time and battle damage
assessment, especially against moving C2 targets. Both lethal and non-lethal
attack means will be used in the future.
3. Support Battlefield
For effective decision making,
commanders must develop and articulate a vision of their unit's conduct
of an operation, based on their knowledge, experience, and intuitive feel
for the battlespace.
is the process whereby the commander -
a clear understanding of his current state in relation to the enemy
a desired end state that represents mission accomplishment; and
the sequence of activity that will move his force from its current
state to its desired end state.
The ART of battlefield
visualization is an essential leadership attribute that is learned through
training, practice, experience, wisdom and available battle command technologies.
From an IO perspective the
commander must identify, collect and process critical information needed
for battlefield visualization. For the current state he needs to know
what is happening among the people who live in the operational area, as
well as friendly and adversary military force information. For the desired
end state he needs to collect information about both military and non-military
actions that may occur once military objectives are secured. For visualizing
the sequence of events leading up to the desired end state he needs information
to capitalize on friendly IO capabilities and take advantage of adversary
IO vulnerabilities . The commander's art or ability to obtain critical,
timely and accurate information; gain a knowledge advantage over adversaries;
employ battlefield visualization; and use his intuition and experience
to make timely decisions are keys to victory on the modern battlefield.
The SCIENCE of battlefield
visualization (BV) depends on new technology in several areas. Digitization
provides Situational Awareness as a Relevant Common Picture. Mission planning,
rehearsal and execution tools help the commander visualize the battle
and merits of different courses of action. The Army Battle Command System
(ABCS) will support visualization plus horizontal -vertical integration
by providing displays, computers, communications and networks.
is still predominately a human endeavor - more art than science. The commander
must still conceptualize, plan, prepare, and execute operations - responsibilities
that cannot be delegated.
4. Capitalize on Force
The Army is capitalizing
on emerging technology and the results of the ongoing Army Task Force
and Division Advanced Warfighting Experiments (AWE) to design, develop
and equip our Army for the 21st Century. At the heart of this effort is
the realization that the Information Age is upon us and we must transform
not only our organization and equipment, but also our tactics, techniques
To achieve transition smoothly
in the shortest period the following initiatives are in progress:
incorporation of digital technology across services and battlefield
systems will give commanders and soldiers unprecedented capability
to gather and share information.
we develop this highly digitized force, we will constantly assess
our vulnerabilities and rapidly develop protective measures to safeguard
our digital systems.
communications, sensor and computer networks will enable us to know
where we are and where the adversary is with real time situational
awareness horizontally and vertically. This will allow simultaneous
planning and decision making at all levels of command.
automation will similarly provide us information about what we have,
where it is and where the assets are to move it.
Force XXI Advanced Warfighting
Experiments will enhance the way we visualize the battlefield, conduct
operations and train our forces.
The Goal: Achieve Information
Today's battlefield has been
profoundly changed due to the technology revolution. The Army's ability
to gather, process, disseminate and use information to ensure that we
can make decisions faster and better than the adversary is critical to
our success. This means that we must protect our own information and systems
while exploiting, degrading and destroying those of an adversary. This
is what allows us to gain information dominance at critical times.
As stated at the beginning,
"Victorious military operations demand the successful conduct of
IO. There are few greater challenges facing us today or in the future."
To successfully transition
into the dominant land force in the 21st Century and achieve information
dominance, our Army must achieve the four critical IO Objectives above
and operationally synchronize the three components of IO--operations,
INFOSYS and RII.
Building upon these accomplishments,
our Information Age force will generate a fully integrated IO effort that
enables it to achieve information dominance and, thereby, create a significant
operational advantage whenever employed.
These are new concepts and
new ways to approach conflict and warfighting in the Information Age that
all 21st Century warfighters must deftly accomplish. As outlined hereafter,
the IO Campaign Plan clearly marks the way ahead. However, the Army must
"stay the course" to achieve its goals and attain its ultimate
ABOVE HIS HEAD