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DRAFT BROCHURE

INFORMATION OPERATIONS

[FUTURISTIC COVER]

22 JAN 97

Inside Front Cover

COLLAGES OF IMAGES REPRESENTING THE THREE COMPONENTS OF IO:

RELEVANT INFO & INTELLIGENCE, INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND OPERATIONS (OPSEC, DECEPTION, PSYOP, ELECTRONIC WARFARE, PHYSICAL DESTRUCTION, PUBLIC AFFAIRS AND CIVIL AFFAIRS)

COMPONENT IMAGES SHOULD BE SIMILAR TO "INFORMATION DOMINANCE" BLACK BOOK LOGO, WHICH INCLUDES SOLDIERS AT COMPUTER TERMINALS, AN AIRBORNE COMM CENTER, C2 VEHICLES, AND A COMBAT SOLDIER LISTENING TO RADIO. THIS IMAGE WOULD BE APPROPRIATE FOR THE INFORMATION SYSTEMS COMPONENT

Outline

Subject Page(s)

CSA/SEC ARMY Statement 1

CDR TRADOC Statement 2

Operating Environment 3

Information Dominance 4

Information Operations (IO) 5

IO Components 6-8

Relevant Info & Intelligence 6

Information Systems 6-7

Operations 7-8

Impact of IO 8

The Army's IO Campaign Plan 9

IO Campaign Objectives 10-12

Improve C2-Protect Capabilities 10

Improve C2-Attack Coordination 10

Support Battlefield Visualization 11

Capitalize on Force XXI AWEs 12

Goal: Achieve Information Dominance 12

Department of the Army

Washington, D. C.

"Victory through Information Dominance"

With the publication of FM 100-6, Information Operations, we now have the doctrine for Winning the Information War. Information Operations will be integral to all Army Operations in the 21st Century. Our Information Operations concept envisions a full spectrum force capable of decisive victory through the rapid attainment of campaign objectives with minimal risk to our most valuable assets ... our soldiers.

These 21st Century military operations will be heavily based on knowledge derived from relevant information and intelligence collected, processed, analyzed and disseminated over a complex global system of systems.

This evolving military information environment will fundamentally change the way we, the Army, conduct operations in peace, conflict and war. Information Operations include all measures, both offensive and defensive, taken to achieve information dominance. Information Operations will be integrated into every aspect of Army XXI.

Victorious military operations demand the successful conduct of Information Operations. There are few greater challenges facing us today or in the future.

Dennis J. Reimer                                              Togo D. West, Jr.
General. U.S. Army                                         Secretary of the Army
Chief of Staff

U. S. Army

Training and Doctrine Command

Fort Monroe, Virginia

"The Information Age is upon us."

We must change. That much is certain. This brochure outlines a major change as we grow into the future -- Information Dominance. This is sparked by the ongoing information revolution that we see around us every day. Todayís youth are not afraid of technology and are more comfortable with computers than bicycles. Virtually everything we touch -- phones, televisions, radios, even our cars -- has been made faster, more efficient, or otherwise improved by the information revolution. The Army is capitalizing on this wave of the future.

As we change some things will remain constant. Successful information operations as outlined in FM 100-6 will enable Army XXI to achieve decisive victory at minimal cost while fulfilling our four traditional roles :
Compel any adversary to do our will
Deter any potential adversary from threatening our national interests
Reassure our friends and allies of our support
Support our friends, allies, and domestic population in times of crisis or natural disaster

Technology has enabled a breakthrough in how we do business. Already it has increased the pace of daily operations, so we know it will provide commanders more information, and potentially more time, to make decisions. Information technology provides more information -- vital information -- across the breadth of the battlefield, ensuring that those who need to know will know. It's basically information that tells us three things: where I am, where you are, and where the enemy is, all with a greater degree of certainty than ever before. Information, and our ability to move it rapidly around the operational area, is allowing us to conduct business in an environment no longer constrained by the physical geography around us.

That's power, and we're calling it a common relevant picture, that provides situational awareness. This is about shared, accurate information -- between and among leaders, commands, weapons platforms, soldiers, and industry. We are taking advantage of the power of information technology to build this capability into our force. That is what will enable Army XXI to revolutionize the way the Army moves, shoots, and communicates.

Read this pamphlet. Study it. Then read FM 100-6, our capstone publication for information operations. We will not fully realize the potential of the information revolution without human influence and the understanding of soldiers and leaders who link and integrate information, technology, and action.

William W. Hartzog
General, U. S. Army
Commanding

Operating Environment

The Army is changing the way it does business because of rapid advances in technology, especially in the information arena. Today's environment has become increasingly complex and will become even more so in the future. Developments in information technology are revolutionizing how nations, organizations and people interact. The Army is taking full advantage of the capabilities that this dynamic environment presents.

A global information environment (GIE) electronically links organizations and individuals around the globe. Characterized by a merging of civilian and military information networks and technologies, this interconnection of communications networks, computer data bases and consumer electronics puts vast amounts of information at a user's fingertips.

Current and emerging electronic technologies permit a global audience to view every aspect of a military operation in near real time. This worldwide telecommunications web transcends military, media and nongovernmental entities. It includes many actors, agencies, and influences outside the traditional view of military conflict.

The military information environment (MIE) consists of both friendly and adversary military and nonmilitary information systems. It also includes organizations that support, enable or significantly influence a military operation.

The MIE--
Reaches into space from the home station to the area of operation.
Reaches into time, from the alert phase through the redeployment phase.
Reaches across purposes, from tactical missions to economic end states.
Includes people, from deployed soldiers and families at home to local or regional populations and global audiences.

Within the context of the MIE, the information revolution offers the Army unique opportunities as well as some formidable challenges. Responding to this environment, the Army is preparing for operations today as well as in the 21st Century. Information Operations integrate all aspects of information to accomplish the full potential for enhancing the conduct of military operations. In the simplest form, they are the activities that gain information and knowledge and improve friendly execution of operations while denying an adversary similar capabilities by whatever means possible.

The military objective remains to enter an operational theater capable of achieving superior combat power against an enemy or to establish situational dominance in support and stability operations. By enabling the commander to attain information dominance, information operations plays a key role in achieving victory in military operations.

Information Dominance

Information dominance is "the degree of information superiority that allows the possessor to use information systems and capabilities to achieve an operational advantage in a conflict or to control the situation in operations short of war, while denying those capabilities to the adversary." (FM 100-6)

We achieve information dominance by gaining a knowledge advantage over an adversary. Creating information dominance has two equally important facets:
Enhancing and protecting friendly information capabilities.
Exploiting, degrading, or destroying adversary information capabilities.

Throughout history commanders have sought to leverage the temporary advantage that comes from an information advantage, whether it comes from knowledge of terrain or satellite imagery. Achieving a knowledge advantage requires a highly developed sense of information requirements and an ability to manage the collection, processing, use and dissemination of that information to the right place, at the right time, for the desired purpose.

Impact of Information Dominance

Successful Information Operations achieve information dominance and provide commanders with an information advantage over their adversaries. As a result, commanders make more timely decisions and perform the basic combat functions (move, strike and protect) nearly simultaneously with minimum degradation of combat effectiveness.

Prior to the start of the Information Age, units were able to perform one activity well (for example, move) at one time; with serious limitations in the other two (strike, protect).

With detailed and timely knowledge of friendly and enemy activity, a leader can move faster, strike harder with greater precision, and protect the unit more economically and effectively.

Information Operations (IO) are:

"Continuous military operations within the military information environment that enable, enhance, and protect the friendly force's ability to collect, process, and act on information to achieve an advantage across the full range of military operations. Information Operations include interacting with the global information environment and exploiting or denying an adversary's information and decision capabilities." FM 100-6"

Units conduct IO across the full range of military operations, from peace to conflict to war. IO are instrumental in enabling the Army as part of a joint force to develop and execute flexible deterrent options which preclude a crisis from escalating into conflict. IO are equally relevant in humanitarian assistance missions, such as disaster relief; peacekeeping as occurred in Haiti; and peace enforcement operations as executed in Bosnia.

Activities to support IO include acquiring, using, protecting, managing, exploiting and denying command, control, communications, computer and intelligence (C4I) systems . These activities take place within the three interrelated components of IO:
Relevant information and intelligence
Information systems
Operations

IO Components

1. Relevant Information & Intelligence (RII)

RII is the IO component that enables commanders to make faster and better decisions through expeditious collection, filtering, focusing, fusing and dissemination of information and intelligence. Ultimately, decisive IO depends upon the right person, receiving the right information at the right time. For better decisions commanders need more timely and accurate information, which increases certainty and avoids ambiguity resulting from overload. Organizations and procedures must adjust now to master the richer information flow and faster pace of modern warfare.
The ultimate benefit of the RII process is that commanders gain situational awareness; achieve battlefield visualization; and apply responsive C2 means to achieve rapid victory with minimum casualties.

RII Tasks
Establishing linked processes to collect, process and provide accurate and timely RII.
Identifying friendly, adversary and nonmilitary information required for planning and current operations.
Assessing friendly and adversary IO capabilities and vulnerabilities.
Providing near real time Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB).

2. Information Systems

Advanced Information Systems, including the personnel and equipment to manage, display, transport and disseminate information are the key to Force XXI digitization, battlefield visualization and rapid decision making necessary for victory.

The information revolution, highlighted by the proliferation of satellite communications and rapid advances in network and computer technology, is providing commanders with unprecedented capability.

Military and nonmilitary information systems combine to provide a global capability to support commanders and units across the range of operations. Given the requirement to conduct force projection and split based operations, interoperability and flexibility are critical imperatives of our information systems.

The Army's integrated architecture of advanced information systems maximizes the command and control while ensuring interoperability as part of a joint force.

Information systems enable commanders to:
Monitor the current situation.
Synchronize operations.
Coordinate joint air and naval support.
Update weapon systems targeting parameters.
Integrate close, deep and rear operations

The integration of information systems, both vertically and horizontally, facilitates tactical and operational agility, initiative, depth, synchronization and versatility.

ARMY BATTLE COMMAND SYSTEM

Migration to the Army Battle Command System ensures a common C2 operating environment at all levels and should enhance joint and coalition operations. Projecting, constructing and protecting the Warfighter Information Network provides flexible, global C2 communications.

Information Systems Tasks
Using the Army Battle Command System to present a relevant common picture and support situation awareness.
Establishing global and regional connectivity to interface with foreign and domestic governments/agencies.
Employ simulations for IO mission planning, rehearsal and decision making.

3. Operations

C2-Attack activities influence, degrade or destroy the adversary's information collection, processing and transmission capabilities, reducing his ability to make valid and timely decisions.

C2-Protect activities protect our collection, processing and transmission capabilities and prevent the adversary from determining our plans and intent.

Public Affairs communicates accurate, balanced and credible information to critical leaders and the public to influence their perceptions, understanding and decisions.

Civil Affairs establishes relations among military forces, the public  and civil authorities to exchange information, builds understanding and gain information that may be critical to decision making .

Integrated employment of C2W, public affairs and civil affairs leads to synergy and effective execution of C2-attack or C2-protect tasks.

Operations Tasks
Attacking, denying, degrading, exploiting or influencing enemy or adversary C2 systems, using Command and Control Warfare (C2W) elements of OPSEC, deception, PSYOP, electronic warfare (EW) and physical destruction.
Protecting friendly C2 systems from attack, protecting friendly information, and/or concealing friendly intentions.
Integrating public affairs to explain intentions to leaders and the public.
Integrating Civil Affairs to improve relations and understanding with local governments, coalition forces and indigenous people.

Impact of IO

While Information Operations are not new, it is the application and synchronization of advanced technology and the use of battlefield visualization that can create a victory-producing knowledge advantage for our modern Army in peace, conflict and war.

Because IO drives this knowledge advantage, it directly supports the Army goal of achieving land force dominance quickly, decisively and with minimum casualties. Similarly in crises or in support and stability operations IO is critical to making more effective decisions and defusing crises.

Further, it enhances the commander's lethal and non lethal means to achieve unit missions, while deterring war and promoting peace.

Including Public and Civil Affairs representatives in routine IO staff coordination further reinforces mission achievement through peaceful, nonthreatening means. Through greater integration and synchronization of PA and CA our C2W capabilities are significantly enhanced.

The Army's Campaign Plan

Goals: The goals of this vision are to operationalize and institutionalize IO in the Army and, concurrently, develop future tactics, techniques, procedures (TTP), training , organizations and equipment to integrate IO into Army XXI.

The Plan HQDA is implementing an IO Campaign Plan that provides a conceptual framework for current as well as future Army IO initiatives. Current initiatives include implementing actions associated with the DISC4 C2-Protect Library, TRADOC IO Requirements Assessment and the Combined Arms Center (IO Proponent) Twelve Month Action Plan.

Execution To ensure unity of effort HQDA has established an IO Triad consisting of the offices of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans (DCSOPS), Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence (DCSINT), and the Director of Information Systems for Command, Control, Communications and Computers (DISC4) with DCSOPS as lead.
The DCSOPS coordinates, integrates, resources and prioritizes IO in the Army. He ensures the Army in the field is organized, trained, and equipped to conduct IO.
The DCSINT ensures that the intelligence community provides timely support to IO with relevant intelligence.
The DISC4, as the Army's Chief Information Officer, leads C2-protection and information system initiatives, to include the education and training of users and system administrators to address growing information system threats.
The Assistant Secretary of the Army (Research, Development and Acquisition [RDA]), the Army Acquisition Executive and the Army Materiel Command are the principal IO materiel developers. The RDA community leverages technology to bring systems into the Army that will maximize and protect our friendly IO capabilities and expand our ability to disrupt and exploit our adversaries' capabilities.
TRADOC will institutionalize IO through requirements definition, followed by doctrine, training, leader development, organization and combat development initiatives.
Management At HQDA, implementation of the IO Campaign Plan is supervised by a three-tiered committee structure:
IO Council of Colonels
IO General Officer Steering Committee (1 and 2-star level)
Senior Information Operations Review Council (SIORC) (3-star level)

Annually, HQDA reviews execution of the plan, highlighting successes and readjusting Army-wide efforts to address identified shortfalls and opportunities.

TRADOC and AMC utilize Integrated Concept Teams (ICT) and Integrated Product Teams, respectively, to supervise campaign plan execution.

Ensuring "Victory Through Information Dominance" involves the Total Army in the execution of this IO Campaign Plan.

IO Campaign Objectives

1. Improve C2-Protect Capabilities.

C2-Protect focuses on minimizing friendly vulnerabilities while reducing an adversary's ability to conduct C2-attack. It truly transcends the range of military operations. During crisis and conflict there is an integrated link between C2-protect and C2-attack. With threats to our information systems increasing daily, we must minimize our vulnerabilities at home station, as well as where we are deployed. Our near term priority of effort is to implement the Army's C2-protect program, including management and training plans.

Our overall approach is to augment capabilities in the field with centralized assets. This includes, as a minimum, establishing Army computer emergency response teams and developing resident and exportable system administrator and user education programs.

Training is the most important component. A Quick Reaction Course for System Administrators in both exportable and resident formats will start in FY98. An Information Systems Security Managers (ISSM) Course is available now to train installation ISSMs. The Battle Command Training Program (BCTP) and other major exercises provide IO training for leaders and staffs.

The Army has adopted two sets of C2-Protect Toolboxes to support tactical to strategic systems. The DOS toolbox contains user oriented tools; the UNIX toolbox supports administrators in detecting and preventing unauthorized network intrusions. Research, Development and Acquisition initiatives are to develop and/or adopt additional tools to secure our systems, especially those associated with the Warfighter Information Network.

The Land Information Warfare Activity (LIWA), located at Fort Belvoir, Virginia, has activated the Army Computer Emergency Response Team (ACERT) Coordination Central. LIWA is the focal point for reporting Army computer incidents and can deploy teams to support Army computer facilities that experience intrusions. Subject to funding, the Army will establish regional CERTs in the Pacific, Europe and CONUS.

The acquisition of firewalls, Secure Network Servers, cryptographic devices and other security related devices will continue to be a priority to protect Warfighting and installation systems.

Training leaders and soldiers; distributing toolboxes; improving response to intrusions; and acquiring new security technologies, are the keys to effective C2-Protect capabilities.

2. Improve C2 Attack Coordination

Detailed planning and coordination of C2 Attack means are critically important to timely and effective exploitation and attack of adversary or enemy C2 capabilities. Tools are being developed to assess the advantages of collecting adversary C2 information versus degrading or destroying a C2 node.

Procedures are being refined to coordinate the efforts of PSYOP, electronic warfare, land forces and fire support means in attacking C2 targets. Better technology and procedures will improve "sensor to shooter" response time and battle damage assessment, especially against moving C2 targets. Both lethal and non-lethal attack means will be used in the future.

3. Support Battlefield Visualization.

For effective decision making, commanders must develop and articulate a vision of their unit's conduct of an operation, based on their knowledge, experience, and intuitive feel for the battlespace.

Battlefield Visualization is the process whereby the commander -
Develops a clear understanding of his current state in relation to the enemy and environment
Envisions a desired end state that represents mission accomplishment; and
Visualizes the sequence of activity that will move his force from its current state to its desired end state.

The ART of battlefield visualization is an essential leadership attribute that is learned through training, practice, experience, wisdom and available battle command technologies.

From an IO perspective the commander must identify, collect and process critical information needed for battlefield visualization. For the current state he needs to know what is happening among the people who live in the operational area, as well as friendly and adversary military force information. For the desired end state he needs to collect information about both military and non-military actions that may occur once military objectives are secured. For visualizing the sequence of events leading up to the desired end state he needs information to capitalize on friendly IO capabilities and take advantage of adversary IO vulnerabilities . The commander's art or ability to obtain critical, timely and accurate information; gain a knowledge advantage over adversaries; employ battlefield visualization; and use his intuition and experience to make timely decisions are keys to victory on the modern battlefield.

The SCIENCE of battlefield visualization (BV) depends on new technology in several areas. Digitization provides Situational Awareness as a Relevant Common Picture. Mission planning, rehearsal and execution tools help the commander visualize the battle and merits of different courses of action. The Army Battle Command System (ABCS) will support visualization plus horizontal -vertical integration by providing displays, computers, communications and networks.

Battlefield Visualization is still predominately a human endeavor - more art than science. The commander must still conceptualize, plan, prepare, and execute operations - responsibilities that cannot be delegated.

4. Capitalize on Force XXI AWEs

The Army is capitalizing on emerging technology and the results of the ongoing Army Task Force and Division Advanced Warfighting Experiments (AWE) to design, develop and equip our Army for the 21st Century. At the heart of this effort is the realization that the Information Age is upon us and we must transform not only our organization and equipment, but also our tactics, techniques and procedures.

To achieve transition smoothly in the shortest period the following initiatives are in progress:
The incorporation of digital technology across services and battlefield systems will give commanders and soldiers unprecedented capability to gather and share information.
As we develop this highly digitized force, we will constantly assess our vulnerabilities and rapidly develop protective measures to safeguard our digital systems.
Improved communications, sensor and computer networks will enable us to know where we are and where the adversary is with real time situational awareness horizontally and vertically. This will allow simultaneous planning and decision making at all levels of command.
Logistics automation will similarly provide us information about what we have, where it is and where the assets are to move it.

Force XXI Advanced Warfighting Experiments will enhance the way we visualize the battlefield, conduct operations and train our forces.

The Goal: Achieve Information Dominance

Today's battlefield has been profoundly changed due to the technology revolution. The Army's ability to gather, process, disseminate and use information to ensure that we can make decisions faster and better than the adversary is critical to our success. This means that we must protect our own information and systems while exploiting, degrading and destroying those of an adversary. This is what allows us to gain information dominance at critical times.

As stated at the beginning, "Victorious military operations demand the successful conduct of IO. There are few greater challenges facing us today or in the future."

To successfully transition into the dominant land force in the 21st Century and achieve information dominance, our Army must achieve the four critical IO Objectives above and operationally synchronize the three components of IO--operations, INFOSYS and RII.

Building upon these accomplishments, our Information Age force will generate a fully integrated IO effort that enables it to achieve information dominance and, thereby, create a significant operational advantage whenever employed.

These are new concepts and new ways to approach conflict and warfighting in the Information Age that all 21st Century warfighters must deftly accomplish. As outlined hereafter, the IO Campaign Plan clearly marks the way ahead. However, the Army must "stay the course" to achieve its goals and attain its ultimate objective.

INSIDE BACK COVER

OUTSIDE BACK COVER

LAND WARRIOR IN BDUs

IN COMBAT SETTING

WITH HEADS-UP DISPLAY

 

 

 

PROJECTED ABOVE HIS HEAD

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