NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY
President: Lieutenant General Ervin J. Rokke
Vice President: Ambassador William G. Walker
INSTITUTE FOR NATIONAL STRATEGIC STUDIES
Director and Publisher: Hans A. Binnendijk
ADVANCED CONCEPTS AND INFORMATION STRATEGY
Director: David Alberts
Martin Libicki is a Senior Fellow, Institute for National Strategic Studies, where he specializes in the application of information technology to national security and other worldscale applications.
Opinions, conclusions, and recommendations, expressed or implied, are those of the authors. They do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Defense University, the Department of Defense, or any other U.S. Government agency. Cleared for public release; distribution unlimited.
Portions of this publication may be quoted or reprinted without further permission, with credit to the Institute for National Strategic Studies, Washington, D.C. A courtesy copy of reviews and tearsheets would be appreciated.
Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, D.C. 20402-9328
The author gratefully acknowledges the very kind help of the following people who provided information for or reviewed and commented on previous versions of this report:
David Alberts, John Alger, Kenneth Allard, Dorothy Denning, Seymour Goodman, Delonnie Henry, Stuart Johnson, Brian McCue, Anthony Oettinger, Capt. Richard O'Neill, Ellin Sarot, Marilyn Z. Wellons.