Table of Content
Major Operations Plan Model1
(Sample Campaign OPLAN)
Copy No. ___
Place of Issue
Date/Time Group of Signature
MAJOR OPERATION PLAN: (Number or code name)
References: Maps, charts, and other documents
TASK ORGANIZATION/COMMAND RELATIONSHIPS.
1. SITUATION. Integrate tactical considerations important to IO
in the early phases of an operation into the overall description of the
operational situation. Refer to command and staff estimates, country studies,
or OPLANs. Indicate trigger events that would signal execution
of specific components to an IO within the OPORD.
a. Intelligence. Integrate adversary threats to friendly IO.
A detailed discussion of the intelligence aspects of IO is found in
the intelligence annex (Annex B) or the intelligence estimate.
b. Friendly Forces. Provide information on friendly forces that
may affect the execution of the IO plan being put forth. These effects
may impact directly on the command or on organizations subordinate to
c. Attachments and Detachments. List attachments and detachments
d. Assumptions. Integrate a summary of the conditions and situations
that must exist to enhance IO.
2. MISSION. Address IO to the degree necessary to fully state
the overall operational mission.
a. Commander's Intent. Briefly include how IO will support the
mission within the context of the commander's overall vision of the
b. Concept of Operations. Include a clear, concise statement
of implied or specified IO tasks to be achieved in all phases of the
major operation. One example is legitimizing an overall campaign through
IO to prepare the people in the adversary country to accept results
of the operation, particularly if it could be viewed with bitterness.
Summarize IO tasks assigned by the CINC and other informational tasks
derived from the commander's analysis of the environment and his understanding
of his superiors' intent. At the operational level, the concept of operation
is usually divided into phases.
(1) Phase I. The first operational phase of a contingency
is usually the detailed preparation of the command to execute the
operation. IO elements often addressed during this phase include the
(a) Establishing liaison with various entities, to include the
unified command responsible for the target area; with other unified
and subunified commands (especially those involved in deployment);
with SOF already in the target area; and with appropriate US Government
agencies. Each of these liaisons will form a portion of the overall
(b) Using diplomatic and interagency support to assist in transferring
status of forces agreements, constraints (Annex E), and ROE (Annex
F) for the proposed operation with participating nations (in coordination
with DOS and appropriate embassies and country teams).
(c) Establishing INFOSYS forward to establish C2 and to assist
in establishing or preparing intermediate staging bases in the target
region and directing the repositioning of supplies and equipment.
(d) Using CA, PSYOP, and PA to support political and diplomatic
(e) Transmitting the commander's intent and scheme of operational
maneuver, including close battle, deep battle, and rear security
operations to ensure simultaneous understanding and execution of
complex operations by all participants.
(f) Supporting operational fires with IO such as EW and appropriate
C4I architectures. This support assists complex arrangements for
fire support (Annex G), including joint and multinational employment
of fires and targeting.
(g) Determining IO support to civil affairs (Annex T), air
defense (Annex H), EW and ES (Annex D, Appendix B), PSYOP
(Annex D, Appendix D), and rear operations (Annex L), protection
of forces and means (Annex M), provost marshal functions (Annex N),
PA (Annex O), and space operations (Annex P).
(h) Developing IO branches and sequels.
(i) Providing coordinating instructions applicable to two or more
subordinate elements executing IO. Also include instructions for
informational linkups with SOF or ground units involved in the deep
(2) Phase II. The second operational phase is usually the
execution of the operation itself. Address those aspects of IO that
play a major role in supporting this phase.
(a) Include in the description of the concept of operations the
role of IO elements in increasing the effectiveness of major units.
(b) Set forth the scheme of maneuver, as well as the deployment
scheme, of IO units to attain initial objectives. The scheme should
include, where appropriate, the forcible insertion of combat elements
and necessary C2 elements and their accompanying support. Address--
1. Sequencing of informational units as the operational situation
becomes clearer. The deployment of contributing informational
elements may be accelerated or delayed as appropriate.
2. Changes in the nature of the operation.
3. Major regrouping of informational forces.
4. Significant changes in enemy capabilities that would affect
the informational units necessary in the operation.
(c) In the fire support subparagraph or its annex, address joint
interfaces such as the joint targeting board (JTB) and the battlefield
coordination element (BCE) and the IO considerations bearing on
(d) Include IO provisions for CA (Annex T), air defense (Annex H),
EW and ES (Annex D, Appendix D), PSYOP (Annex D, Appendix
D) and rear operations (Annex L), protection of forces and
means (Annex M), provost marshal functions (Annex N),
PA (Annex O), and space operations (Annex P).
(e) As necessary, state the location and tasks for IO elements
held in reserve.
(f) Include coordinating instructions that apply to two or more
subordinate elements executing IO. Also include link-up procedures
through IO between the force and forces already in the operation,
(3) Phase III. The third operational phase is usually the
consolidation of the results of a successful end state for this phase.
It does not contain the detail of the preceding phases. Address supporting
IO as appropriate.
c. Tasks for Major Subordinate Commands. Ensure that IO are
addressed as appropriate for each major subordinate command.
d. Coordinating Instructions. Integrate instructions on C2W
whenever two or more phases of the operation are affected. Coordinating
instructions may include the following:
(1) Times, events, or situations that may signal the transition of
various IO between phases.
(2) Constraints (Annex E). IO in situations other than war are
usually constrained significantly by factors other than strictly military
ones. Describe such limitations on IO on military actions in the same
annex detailing the provisions of treaties, agreements, and conventions
governing the political, military, and informational limits on the
(3) Rules of engagement (Annex F). In addition to constraints
imposed by international agreement, certain self-imposed ROE govern
the use of military forces and certain weapons effects during the
major operation. These rules may affect the use of EMS, computer networks,
and interference with space-based communications and other signals.
(4) Resource management guidance that may limit IO (for example,
limited communications circuits, limited equipment availability, or
limited access to networks).
(5) Training guidance concerning IO procedures (for example, PSYOP,
CA). Refer to a separate annex (Annex Q).
(6) Operational planning guidance involving IO.
(7) Space operations planning guidance (Annex P) providing enhancements
(8) Public affairs operations (Annex O).
4. SUPPORT. Insert specific information as to how IO support Army
elements involved in an operation. In this paragraph or in a support annex
(Annex R), the ARFOR commander includes IO among descriptions of
those support matters necessary to accomplish the combat mission of his
force. The IO support plan phases must coincide with OPLAN phases.
5. COMMAND AND SIGNAL.
a. Command. Enter liaison requirements and designate alternate
command posts (CP) and succession of command if not adequately covered
in the SOP. This instruction includes CP locations and axis of CP displacement
if not shown on an accompanying overlay.
b. Signal. As a minimum, list the current communications-electronics
operations instructions (CEOI) index. These instructions can refer to
an annex but should include rules concerning the use of communications
and other electronic equipment (for example, radio silence).
ANNEXES: In recognition of the expanding contribution that IO
can make to the accomplishment of the overall mission, OPLAN annexes have
been reorganized by creating a new C2W Annex that consolidates the traditional
annexes dealing with deception, EW, and PSYOP.
A Task Organization/Command Relationships. In a plan for a major
operation composed of several phases, within this annex, identify and
integrate the task organization required to conduct IO. Outline command
relationships and their changes, if any, as the IO progresses from one
phase to the next. Include information-specific task organizations for
Army component support to contingencies in the annexes referring to the
plans for those operations. Relate the informational structure against
interfaces expected with the following activities involved in the operation:
a. Civil-Political Relationships. Embassies, country teams,
non-DOD US Government agencies (Central Intelligence Agency [CIA], Drug
Enforcement Agency [DEA], Agency for International Development [AID]).
b. Multinational Force Relationships. Host nations, allies,
forces from regional/treaty organizations.
c. Joint Relationships. DOD agencies (DIA, NSA, DISA), unified
and specified commands (subunified commands and joint task forces when
appropriate), other services in uniservice roles.
d. Other Army Forces. The informational structure that enables
connectivity from the highest level army component participating in
operations down to the lowest level, including:
(1) Army components of subunified commands and joint task forces.
(2) Functional commands.
(3) Area commands.
(4) Major combat and combat support organizations directly under
full theater army command in peacetime.
(5) Army organizations providing EAC support to the BCE and air combat
(6) ARSOF, especially deployable informational structures, to include
PSYOP, SF, and supporting communications units.
B Intelligence. This annex should incorporate critical information
needed to support IO and integrate those elements into the larger overview
of the enemy situation. Detailed information needed to conduct C2W operations
should be further developed in the C2W Annex.
C Operations Overlay. This annex is a graphic representation of
the concept of operations.
D C2W Annex. The C2W annex focuses on providing the necessary
information to conduct C2W operations and consolidates all information
previously found in the annexes dealing with deception (formerly Annex D),
EW (formerly Annex I), and PSYOP (formerly Annex K). The intent
is to integrate all aspects of C2W to best identify and synchronize the
application of available capabilities to achieve the overall mission.
A sample C2W Annex is provided in Annex B
of this appendix.
E Constraints. This annex contains those political, humanitarian,
economic, and social/cultural limitations on applying military power during
F Rules of Engagement. This annex contains guidelines to subordinate
and supporting organizations regarding the rules for the control of forces
and their weapons systems, to include guidance on the conduct of IO.
G Fire Support. This annex contains a statement of the fire support
operations to be carried out, to include major groupings of fire support
means and priorities and the integration of nuclear, chemical, and conventional
fires, as appropriate.
H Air Defense. This annex should state the air defense operation
to be carried out, to include air defense priorities and reference to
the deployment overlays appendix. It should contain the allocation of
counterair units, tasks, and coordinating instructions.
I Not Used.
J Engineer. This annex should include a statement of how the engineering
support is to be carried out, to include priorities of mobility, countermobility,
and survivability tasks within sectors and priority of uncommitted engineering
resources to subordinate units or sectors.
K Not Used.
L Rear Operations. This annex contains guidance and priorities
for securing the rear areas and facilities to prevent or minimize enemy
interference, disruption of combat support and service support, or movement
of friendly troops. It designates a unit to find, fix, and destroy enemy
incursions into the rear area and provides area damage control after an
attack or incident.
M Protection. This annex contains instructions for the protection
of bases, installations, military personnel, family members, and other
US nationals in the theater from terrorism, natural disasters, and other
dangers. It also contains information on protection of C4I architecture.
N Provost Marshal. This annex prioritizes the four MP battlefield
missions: area security, battlefield circulation control, enemy prisoner-of-war
operations, and law enforcement. It should specify any tasks and/or coordinating
instructions not covered in the OPORD.
O Public Affairs. This annex contains guidance for facilitating
the media effort to cover the operation and for supporting the information
needs of soldiers and their families. While PA is clearly a part of IO,
it is addressed in its own annex since it falls outside C2W as defined
by joint doctrine.
P Space Operations. This annex describes planned and available
space support to the OPLAN. It explains how to obtain and coordinate space
support and lists operational constraints and shortfalls. This annex is
linked to space-based systems such as communications and, as such, is
closely related to IO.
Q Training. This annex contains guidance for multinational, joint,
and service training of individuals and units assigned or attached to
the theater army, which includes liaison teams and other forms of connectivity
that enable coalition C4I.
R Support. This annex spells out in detail the necessary support
for subordinate formations to accomplish their missions. It may include
special instructions for INFOSYS support of software support, configuration
support, evacuating criteria, repair criteria, and so forth.
S Communications-Electronics. This annex describes the link provided
by the force headquarters between the ATCCS, which exists among its subordinate
units and joint and multinational C2 systems, as well as those of the
sustaining base. It addresses INFOSYS and must be carefully coordinated
with C2W operations.
T Civil Affairs. This annex describes civil affairs operations
and organizations that affect the overall operation. It specifies how
CA activities can provide relevant information supporting the CCIR from
nontraditional sources in the GIE. While CA is clearly a part of IO, it
is addressed in its own annex since it falls outside C2W as defined by
1 This OPLAN format conforms
to the format delineated in Joint Pub 5-00.2 and FM 101-5.