Table of Content
This appendix discusses the functions and responsibilities of Army
and joint agencies supporting IO and C2W across the operational spectrum.
It discusses the missions and functions of the Joint Command and Control
Warfare Center (JC2WC) and LIWA. It delineates the responsibilities
to the commander-in-chief (CINC) and Army component commander, respectively.
IO/C2W planners should use this appendix to gain a better understanding
of the support available from these agencies.
JOINT COMMAND AND
CONTROL WARFARE CENTER
CJCS Instruction 5118.01 is the charter for the JC2WC. This paragraph
provides key excerpts from that document to provide combatant commanders,
JFCs, and other units requiring assistance in C2W with a ready reference
of the support provided by the JC2WC.
The mission of the JC2WC, formerly the Joint Electronic Warfare Center
(JEWC), is to provide direct C2W support to operational commanders. The
JC2WC supports the integration of the constituent elements of C2W--OPSEC,
PSYOP, military deception, EW, and destruction. It also supports the noncombat
military applications of IW throughout the planning and execution phases
of operations. The JC2WC provides this direct support in the following
- Joint force commanders (combatant commanders, subordinated unified
commanders, and joint task force commanders).
- Service component commanders.
- Functional component commanders.
The JC2WC also provides support to the Office of the Secretary of Defense,
the joint staff, the services, and other US Government agencies. The JC2WC
maintains specialized expertise in C2W-related--
- Systems engineering.
- Operational applications.
The JC2WC, through the joint staff director for operations (J3) serves
as the principal field agency within DOD for C2W support.
As stated in CJCSI 5118.01 the JC2WC, acting through the joint staff
- Interfaces with the joint staff, services, DOD, and non-DOD agencies
to integrate IW (see DOD Directive TS3600.1) with DOD C2W efforts.
- Participates in the Joint Special Technical Operations System by analyzing
capabilities (in coordination with the intelligence community), as tasked
by the director of the joint staff, to optimize special technical operations
support to combatant commanders.
- Serves as the joint staff central point of contact for reviewing joint
C2W mission needs statements (MNS).
- Coordinates with the joint staff director for C4 systems (J6) for
- Assists the CJCS, through the joint staff J3/STOD (special technical
operations division that serves as the doctrine sponsor for C2W and
EW) in the development of joint doctrine and joint tactics, techniques,
- Evaluates C2W effectiveness in combat.
- Serves as the DOD focal point for defining, coordinating, and overseeing
the integration of those data bases/data systems necessary to establish
a common joint information base for conducting C2W. This information
base comprises intelligence and operational data bases/data systems,
that is, data on US equipment, systems, and forces. It also includes
other types of data bases (the remainder of the world's systems--geophysical,
topographical, psychological, and doctrinal) necessary to conduct C2W
in the combatant commander's battlespace. It includes US and, as available,
allied WARM (weapons assignment research model) descriptions and descriptions
of US-manufactured systems sold to other nations. For the most part,
this information base:
-Is releasable to allied nations annually in coordination with the
services, intelligence agencies, and other cognizant agencies and
-Provides a report to the joint staff J3 on the currency and shortfalls
in the C2W information base.
-Participates in the development of decision aids used to manipulate
the C2W information base.
-Orchestrates efforts for interoperability and connectivity of data
and systems to support C2W with the GCCS in cooperation with the DOD
intelligence community and the joint staff J6.
- Organizes, manages, and exercises the joint aspects of EW reprogramming.
Develops procedures to assist commanders with the identification, validation,
and dissemination of electronic threat changes. Coordinates compatibility
and facilitates exchange of data used in joint EW reprogramming among
the intelligence community, services, and combatant commands.
- Organizes and facilitates development of joint C2W simulations supporting
wargaming among the joint staff, services, combatant commands, and combat
support agencies, in conjunction with the Joint Warfighting Center.
- Serves as the joint staff's point of contact through the J3 for C2W
joint universal lessons learned (JULLS) reported under the Joint After-Action
Reporting System (JAARS) and referred for action as remedial action
- Participates in C2W research or studies of an operational nature for
DOD organizations and agencies.
- Maintains knowledge and coordinates with the services on C2W systems
engineering initiatives, laboratory programs, and industrial developments.
- Performs vulnerability and effectiveness analyses of US equipment
used in C2W. Coordinates C2 vulnerability analyses with the joint staff
- Supports allied nations or international organizations on a case-by-case
basis. Support includes representing the US in appropriate international
- Produces the annual DOD EW Plan in conjunction with the Services and
combat support agencies.
- Develops and produces an annual DOD C2W plan in conjunction with the
services and combat support agencies.
For direct combatant commander C2W support, the JC2WC maintains deployable
C2W augmentation teams to support the combatant commander as requested.
To provide timely analysis and advice for planning and coordination of
C2W, these teams maintain an awareness of the threat and the OPLANs in
the respective combatant commanders' AORs. In addition, the teams--
- Train with and develop routine working relationships with other organizations
having specialized expertise in the constituent elements of C2W.
- Provide C2W technical assistance.
- Function as the central coordinating element for organizations that
support the CINC's C2W effort.
- Maintain the capability to assist in planning and coordinating the
employment of joint and combined EW assets as part of the JCEWS.
- Provide in-theater guidance and assistance for the joint coordination
of EW reprogramming.
- Provide timely advice and comprehensive EW analysis support, such
as radar terrain masking overlays, and predictive analyses (for example,
As required, the JC2WC requests augmentation from specialized organizations,
through the joint staff J3, for a deploying JC2WC team to provide a more
comprehensive C2W capability to the supported commander. The JC2WC also--
- Maintains a dedicated action officer at the JC2WC for each combatant
command to interface with each CINC's staff and integrates C2W into
appropriate OPLANs. These action officers are responsible for all JC2WC
actions regarding C2W support of their respective CINCs.
- Provides tactical and technical analyses of C2W in military operations.
- Supports C2W training by assisting combatant commanders in planning,
conducting, and evaluating the C2W aspects of joint exercises, including
field training exercises, command post exercises, and computer simulations
for wargaming in collaboration with the Joint Warfighting Center.
- Coordinates and conducts field demonstrations of emerging technologies
responsive to CINC C2W needs.
LAND INFORMATION WARFARE ACTIVITY
AR 520-20 established the Land Information Warfare Activity to integrate
OPSEC, military deception, PSYOP, EW, and physical destruction to support
IO and C2W. A memorandum of understanding (MOU) delineates the command,
control, and functional relationships of HQDA and the US Army Information
Systems Command (USAINSCOM) with LIWA. It further delineates HQDA command
and staff responsibilities for IO/C2W. LIWA is under the command of USAINSCOM.
The director of operations, readiness, and mobilization exercises operational
tasking authority of LIWA, including IO/C2W operational support policy
and program planning guidance.
This provides a quick reference of the support that LIWA provides. CJCS
has directed Army commanders to integrate IW/C2W into exercises, OPLANs,
and OPORDs. Emerging Army doctrine calls for the formation of an IO activity
to help land operational and tactical commanders integrate C2W with other
information domains such as the GIE, collector-to-shooter linkages, INFOSEC,
counterintelligence (CI), HUMINT, and survivability. Given the technical
complexity of this doctrinal requirement and the need to operate in a
resource-constrained environment, LIWA fields tailored support teams such
as FSTs to help operational and tactical battle staffs integrate IO/C2W
with plans, operations, and exercises.
LIWA coordinates multidisciplined intelligence and other support for
operations planning and execution, to include C2W data base support, HUMINT,
CI, and TECHINT. LIWA is electronically connected with other national,
DOD, joint, and service IW facilities or centers. Integral to LIWA is
the Army Reprogramming Analysis Team-Threat Analysis (ARAT-TA) collocated
with the US Air Force at the Air Warfare Center. ARAT-TA provides the
technical expertise to ensure target-sensing weapons systems are correctly
programmed to meet the specific conditions of a designated AO.
LIWA has been specifically designed to provide tailored support to the
land component commands. LIWA's purpose is to provide commanders with
technical expertise that is not resident on the command's general and
special staff and to provide responsive technical interfaces with other
commands, service components, and national, DOD, and joint information
centers. When deployed, the LIWA FSTs become an integral part of the command's
IO staff. To facilitate planning and execution of IO, LIWA provides IO/C2W
operational support to land component and separate Army commands and active
and reserve components (AC/RC).
LIWA acts as the operational focal point for land IO/C2W by providing
operational staff support to AC/RC land component commands and separate
Army commands. It coordinates, arranges for, and synchronizes IO/C2W intelligence
and CI support to land component commands. LIWA coordinates and deploys
FSTs to assist and support LCCs in C2-protect, including--
- C4 security support.
- Analyses, investigations, and surveys to assess the vulnerability
of the LCCs' C2 facilities to IO/C2W sabotage, deception, and attack
and to assess their ability to maintain personnel and security programs
and protect such facilities.
- C4 threat advisories with recommendations for counter-countermeasures.
LIWA coordinates and deploys FSTs to advise LCCs on C2-attack, including--
- Preparing deliberate and contingency plans and orders.
- Preparing target lists, estimates, and assessments.
- Analyzing the threat and interpreting the situation, critical nodes,
enemy vulnerability, defeat criteria, and BDA.
- Maintaining selected, tailored IO/C2W data bases and monitoring the
accuracy of supporting data bases.
LIWA coordinates and deploys FSTs to provide battlefield deception planning
support to LCCs. Through participation in the Battle Command Training
Program (BCTP), combat training center (CTC) rotations, battle labs, and
Force XXI studies, LIWA coordinates with and provides assistance to TRADOC
in the development and integration of doctrine, training, leader development,
organization, materiel, and soldier requirements (DTLOMS) for IO/C2W.
In addition, LIWA--
- Acts as the functional proponent for battlefield deception.
- Coordinates the establishment of requirements for unprogrammed IO/C2W
studies to support operational contingencies.
- Provides operational insight and recommendations to TRADOC and HQDA
on Army IO/C2W requirements and input into Army modernization strategy,
policy, scenarios, modeling, and simulations.
- Assists TRADOC in the development and evaluation of IO/C2W systems'
performance and operational employment TTP in combat operations, operational
tests, and training exercises.
- Establishes, develops, and promotes IO/C2W interoperability with other
services and allies and recommends improvements.
- Coordinates and facilitates operational IO/C2W matters with other
military services and allies as appropriate.
- Assesses and reports to the director of operations, readiness, and
mobilization IO/C2W force readiness and IO/C2W operational capabilities
of land component forces to accomplish assigned missions under real
or assumed conditions.
LIWA, as the designated Army operational focal point and Army executive
agent for IO/C2W operational support matters, is responsible for--
- Supporting HQDA ODCSOPS with subject-matter technical expertise regarding
IO/C2W matters and land force deployments.
- Advising major Army and component commands on available and emerging
IO/C2W capabilities within the Army and other services and agencies.
- Publishing threat impacts requiring software or hardware adjustments
of IO/C2W knowledge-based weapons systems.
FSTs deploy on exercises with designated commands to support training
and to develop an in-depth understanding of the support command's organization
and procedures. FSTs, adhering to the component commander's intent and
guidance, provide a wide range of support, by--
- Assisting in the preparation of war plans, contingency plans, and
- Helping develop target lists, estimates, and assessments.
- Supporting the analyses of threat critical nodes, enemy vulnerabilities,
defeat criteria, and BDA.
- Providing C2-protect technical support, to include operating a help
line to immediately deal with communications and computer disruptions.
- Recommending how and when to employ IO/C2W capabilities, including
those of other services and agencies.