Table of Content
Effective battle staff planning requires a framework that focuses on
the commander's concept of operation. Planners integrate all available
information and resources that facilitate mission accomplishment at
the strategic, operational, and tactical levels. This appendix discusses
the INFOSYS support planning principles, signal support requirements,
and C2W planning process the commander uses to plan and conduct military
operations. The principles serve as a starting point from which to create
solutions to mission requirements that focus on resolving all INFOSYS
and C2W issues and problems before the start of operations.
SUPPORT PLANNING PRINCIPLES
The INFOSYS planning principles are derived from Joint Publications 6-0
and 6-02. These principles focus the planners' attention on what is important
to the commander. The principles outlined here help accomplish this effort.
Modular INFOSYS packages consist of sets of equipment, people, and software
tailorable for a wide range of missions. Planners must understand the
mission, the commander's intent and operational plan, availability of
assets, and the information structure required to meet the needs of each
mission. These packages must satisfy the commander's informational requirements
during the execution phases of the mission. Modular INFOSYS packages must
be flexible, easily scaled, and tailored with respect to capacity and
Interoperability is the capability of INFOSYS working together
as a system of systems. Interoperability implies compatibility of combined,
joint, and service common information or data elements procedures. Interoperability
is the foundation on which INFOSYS capabilities depend. An interoperable
INFOSYS is visible at all functional levels--a secure, seamless, cohesive,
infrastructure that satisfies C2 and information requirements from the
NCA to the lowest information request. INFOSYS should comply with the
Army's technical architecture. Adherence to these standards and protocols
helps ensure interoperability and a seamless exchange of information among
the battlefield functional areas and joint services. Older INFOSYS that
do not comply with the common operating environment and technical architecture
require special planning and may not be interoperable.
LOs provide a means for the commander and planners to increase interoperability
during different phases of an operation and between commanders and staffs
that have not previously worked together. LOs are especially important
for interpreting intent and relevance to the parties they serve and in
overcoming the natural friction that develops between disparate organizations.
LOs ease technical coordination and enable planners to manage information
more efficiently and effectively. LOs are especially important when working
with government agencies and allies.
Planners must be flexible when supporting INFOSYS requirements in changing
situations. They must anticipate the possibility of changes in the mission
or tactical situation and build a plan to accommodate them.
Scalable system packages ease the application of economy. Space, weight,
or time constraints limit the quantity or capability of systems that can
be deployed. Information requirements must be satisfied by consolidating
similar functional facilities integrating commercial systems
INFOSYS must be reliable, robust, resilient, and at least as survivable
as the supported force. Distributed systems and alternate means of communications
provide a measure of resilience. Systems must be organized and deployed
to ensure that performance under stress degrades gradually and not catastrophically.
Command procedures must be capable of adaptation to cope with degradation
From an INFOSYS network perspective, planners provide diverse paths over
multiple means to ensure timely, reliable information flow. From an equipment
perspective, planners ensure that sufficient backup systems and repair
parts are available to maintain the system's or network's capabilities.
The commander's information requirements must not be compromised by the
use of nonstandard equipment. Planners must ensure that the equipment,
its configuration, and the installed operating systems included in a modular
package are standardized throughout the joint force. Standardization also
includes INFOSYS training, symbology, switch network diagrams, packet
network diagrams, and terminology.
The availability of commercial INFOSYS often offers the commander a guide,
as well as an alternative means, to satisfy his informational C2 needs.
Further, it may reduce the number and size of deployed modular packages;
however, security must be considered. Operational use of a commercial
system allows planners to compensate for system shortages and to meet
the surge of information requirements in the early stages of deployment.
The G6 has staff responsibility for the standardization of commercial
equipment and software used throughout the AO. However, planners have
to ensure the deployed modular INFOSYS packages implement open, nonproprietary,
commonly accepted standards and protocols to interface with commercial
The level of security depends on the nature of the information to be
protected and the threat of interception or exploitation. Electronic on-line
encryption devices usually provide communications security. Controlling
physical access to terminals, software, and disks helps to ensure security
of INFOSYS. Security must be balanced by the need to disseminate critical
SIGNAL SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS
Throughout all force-projection stages, signal support must provide the
means to transport information from CONUS sustaining-base installations,
through strategic gateways, to the forward-most deployed units. The signal
support requirements to fulfill this mission are critical to the successful
execution of IO and are METT-T-dependent. Building on the essential tasks
for INFOSYS described in Chapter 5, the INFOSYS
planning process consists of five phases. These phases take the planner
from construction through reconstitution of the INFOSYS.
Phase I: Construct and Project the INFOSYS
The security aspects of occupying a dispersal area are pretty standard.
What is new is the notion of establishing a sanctuary operations center--a
place from which to anchor the unit's INFOSYS. It may actually be in CONUS
or aboard ship. From this sanctuary, supporting data bases and staffs
provide additional support such as logistics, medicine, and wargaming.
US forces dig in and physically protect their components and establish
strict emission control. Even in the setup process, forces posture information
capabilities to support the division's forward movement.
Phase II: Extend the INFOSYS
The division moves forward via multiple routes during this period of
extreme vulnerability. Redundant C2 headquarters are pushed forward. The
A and B forward CPs have identical capabilities for communications
and intelligence. Intelligence and RISTA capabilities are pushed forward
early, both for security and to provide overwatch of routes. Key signal
nodes are positioned forward to kick in when the unit begins to maneuver,
but the division is silent. Strict control on emissions is observed. The
Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (J-STARS) provides situational
awareness and force tracking. UAVs and satellites extend communications
and networks. Units receive updates on the move via satellite broadcasts.
Concurrently, the unit begins to shape the battlespace.
Phase III: Shape the INFOSYS
When thinking about shaping the battlespace, one must understand the
enemy's organizational whole. The targets, tempo, echelon, networks, and
groupings are not physical things on the ground; they are entirely C2
concepts. For example, if our intent is to talk about stripping
the enemy's artillery, then it is his grouping capacity--his capability
to generate his fire plan and maneuver with fires--that we want to attack.
Phase IV: Maneuver the INFOSYS
Without a pause in the tempo of the attack, units shift to close combat
with maneuver forces. Shaping activities are already isolating the current
battle zone and closing off the enemy's capacity for reconnaissance. Decisive
combat is possible without defeating the enemy force in detail. This is
accomplished by focusing combat power at precise locations that destroy
the organizational integrity of the force. Force tracking and predicative
tools allow maneuvering where the enemy is not and orchestrate
effects not where he is, but where he is going to be.
The intelligence processes reach the crossover point, and organic collections
kick in. The commander looks at how the enemy will react to his plan.
Complete situational awareness is critical. The communications network
and/or tactical internet must be maneuvered to maintain information flow
and needed communications capacities to weigh the bandwidth to the main
effort. During decisive operations, the information flow reaches a crescendo
and so does the potential for information overload. This is where a well-thought-out
CCIR comes into play--a schedule that lays out the frequency and character
of certain reports. CCIRs need to focus on visualizing the sequence of
events that moves the commander from his current situation to an end state.
Phase V: Reconstitute the INFOSYS
INFOSYS are consolidated and reconstituted to police up the digits on
the battlefield. This is accomplished by repairs on the internet, cleanup,
and purging of data bases. Addressees and protocols match actual reorganization,
reflecting losses. Forces communicate through the INFOSYS for telemaintenance
and telemedicine and call forward combat service support. Repositioning
of the INFOSYS for branches and sequels begins.
C2W PLANNING PROCESS
In almost every case, Army commanders employing C2W can expect to do
so in a joint context. But regardless of whether the operation is joint
or purely Army, the commander drives C2W in his organization.
The operations staff (G3/J3) plans for and executes the C2W plan. The
command and staff process for C2W operations is no different than any
other, except in the parameter of focus. Joint and multinational C2W planning
and the process that follows apply to all levels of war and all echelons.
Joint and Multinational Planning
C2W is inherently joint and multinational. The development of C2W capabilities,
plans, programs, tactics, employment concepts, intelligence, and communications
support, as a part of military strategy, requires coordination with responsible
DOD components and allied and coalition nations. In coalition operations
the key to C2W is the need to plan in a multinational manner and achieve
a workable multilevel security program. An exchange of LNOs may be the
most effective way to secure these objectives.
The joint force conducts C2W efforts around a joint force C2W organization.
This may be a C2W cell in a JTF or a C2W battle staff for a CINC. The
key to joint employment of C2W is to leverage the needed capabilities
from the service or component that has them available and employ them
to support the JTF/CINC mission. Just as there is a synergy by employing
the five elements of C2W in a synchronized manner, there is a synergy
in blending the capabilities of the services to focus on mission accomplishment.
CJCSI 3210.03 and Joint Pub 3-13.1 provide joint policy and
doctrine on C2W. The ability of service staffs to integrate effectively
to support joint operations is critical. Two existing staff elements that
may be used to facilitate joint IO activities are the BCE found within
corps headquarters and the air/naval gunfire liaison company (ANGLICO)
found within most fleet Marine forces. Both already serve as information
nodes to coordinate activities across service lines.
Battle Staff Planning
Effective C2W planning requires a framework that focuses the battle staff,
thereby ensuring a plan that supports the commander's concept of operation
by integrating the elements of C2W into a coherent, synchronized plan.
C2-ATTACK PLANNING STEPS
This seven-step process provides a structure and facilitates the planning
process for C2-attack.
- Step 1. Identify how C2-attack could support the overall mission
and concept of operations. Product: C2W mission.
- Step 2. Identify enemy C2 systems whose degradation will have
a significant effect on enemy C2. Product: Enemy potential C2-target
- Step 3. Analyze enemy C2 systems for critical and vulnerable
nodes. Product: high-value target (HVT) list.
- Step 4. Prioritize the nodes for degradation. Product: Prioritized
high-payoff target list.
- Step 5. Determine the desired effect and how the C2W elements
will contribute to the overall objective. Product: C2W concept of operation.
When developing the concept of operation, it is important to recognize
the potential for both mutual reinforcement and mutual conflict among
the five elements of C2W.
- Step 6. Assign assets to each targeted enemy C2 node. Product:
Subordinate unit taskings.
- Step 7. Determine the effectiveness of the operation. Product:
C2-PROTECT PLANNING STEPS
This seven-step process provides a structure and facilitates the planning
process for C2-protect.
- Step 1. Identify how C2-protect could support the overall mission
and the concept of operations. Product: C2W mission.
- Step 2. By phase, identify critical friendly C2 systems that
support the mission and concept of operations. Product: Friendly C2
- Step 3. Determine the enemy's capability to conduct C2-attack
and the effects of friendly C2-attack on our C2 systems (mutual interference).
Product: Threat assessment.
- Step 4. Analyze friendly C2 systems for critical and vulnerable
nodes. Product: Identification of friendly critical and vulnerable nodes.
- Step 5. Prioritize friendly nodes for protection. Product:
C2-protect concept of operation.
- Step 6. Recommend protection measures for nodes. Product: Subordinate
- Step 7. Monitor effectiveness of C2-protect plan. Product:
Preparation of C2W Annex
C2W-related information is in the operations, intelligence, and communications-electronics
(C3) annexes. For most operations, a C2W annex consolidates and integrates
deception, EW, PSYOP, and OPSEC activities into a coherent and cohesive
operation. On occasion, based upon METT-T, the commander may elect to
produce EW, PSYOP, military deception, and OPSEC annexes as stand-alone
parts of the plan or order. The C2W annex includes--
- The specific C2W objectives the commander is seeking for the operations
covered by the plan.
- The concept for C2W that ensures the commander can attain his objectives.
- A lay-down of the commander's assets and capabilities that can be
used to achieve the objectives.
- An identification of shortfalls or problems that may hamper the achievement
of the commander's objectives.
A sample format of the C2W annex to the OPLAN/OPORD is found in Appendix A,
Annex B. Coordination of the C2W plan, action,
direction, and objectives is illustrated in Figure C-1.
Figure C-1. C2W Execution