Table of Content
Staff Organization and Training
Based on the considerations of METT-T, the commander may designate
an IO cell on his staff. The structure of the cell is the prerogative
of the commander. It may be something as simple as periodic use of an
expanded targeting cell or a more formal approach establishing a standing
cell with a specifically designated membership. The IO cell is normally
found at the task-force level, independently operating brigade level,
or above. A notional view of the IO cell is shown in Figure
The IO cell should have representatives from the targeting cell, targeting
board, joint operations and targeting coordination board, or whatever
integrating process the commander uses to integrate and synchronize his
resources. Each element of C2W should be represented where possible. In
OOTW situations the CA representative and/or PA representative may take
on more importance. In conflict and war the targeting representative may
become the focus of activity. Functions of the IO cell include--
- Planning the overall IO effort for the commander.
- Developing IO concepts to support the scheme of maneuver.
- Establishing IO priorities to accomplish planned objectives.
- Determining the availability of IO resources to carry out plans.
Consolidated tasking will assist in the integration and synchronization
required for effective IO, including coordination with the joint IW community.
As the spectrum of engagement moves from peace to war, it may be more
appropriate to stand up an IOBS. An IOBS would be appropriate at division
and above and most appropriate at corps. Although the functions would
be relatively the same as the IO cell, they would be much broader in scope.
This type of staff organization would be best suited for deployment in
the context of a campaign, as discussed in Appendix A
(see Figure D-2).
Figure D-1. Notional IO Cell
As in all areas, effective IO requires soldiers to train the way they
are going to fight or operate. The basic task is to train the force on
IO, with an initial focus on those personnel responsible for planning
and coordinating the individual elements. When our leaders and units are
exposed to realistic IO elements in training, such as information distribution
in OOTW, their readiness and confidence increases.When employing IO in
exercises, the following considerations are important:
- Developing concrete, attainable IO objectives.
- Providing for sufficient IO elements to support the objectives of
- Creating as realistic an IO exercise environment as possible.
- Assessing and evaluating the employment of IO activities.
- Exercising all six IO activities in the context of the exercise.
- Using appropriate security measures to protect the IO elements.
- Evaluating the use of computer support products to execute IO (synchronization
- Using simulations to augment IO where and when applicable.
- Exercising all five C2W elements in the context of the exercise.
Figure D-2. Notional IO Battle Staff
Effective IO first requires specific information products on the
adversary's military (C2, intelligence, and capabilities), social, religious,
and economic background that may have to be provided by exercise planners.
The data needed to create, update, and use these products needs to be
built into the exercise scenario and master scenario events list.
Secondly, the opposition force should have an IO capability consistent
with the OPLAN/CONPLAN scenario that is the basis for the exercise. Realistic
IO are essential to evaluating friendly IO.
Finally, consistent with the tenets of the exercise, free play
of IO should be allowed by both sides. Prestructured, mechanical IO will
degrade the participant's ability to gain valuable experience from the
demands of mental agility and creativity that unstructured IO can provide.
Senior exercise participants should allow, even welcome, the C2 chaos
that effective IO can cause to the exercise participants and work through
A basic IO mission-essential task list (METL) includes tasks and subtasks.
Tasks involve each IO component--operations, relevant information
and intelligence, and INFOSYS. The METL enhances the objective
of achieving information dominance at selected places and times
during an operation. Tasks include--
- Determining required IO information and how to get answers.
-Identify the commander's IO CCIR, PIR, and high-priority targets and
synchronize intelligence and information plans and military plans on
a near-real-time basis.
-Establish information-linked strategic, operational, and tactical
collection, fusion, and report processes (incorporating RISTA/sensor
and CI/HUMINT data) to develop continuous, timely IO IPB.
- Knowing your IO capabilities and vulnerabilities to the enemy, the
natural environment, the political setting, international law, and so
-Provide IO modeling and simulation for training and evaluating performance,
mission rehearsal, and decision making.
-Identify and prioritize IO EEFI.
- Knowing enemy IO capabilities and vulnerabilities.
-Maintain a continuous IO estimate of potential adversaries and/or
other operational situations in support of IO situational awareness
and battlefield visualization.
-Assess adversary C4I/C2W operations, strengths, and vulnerabilities
- Knowing how the enemy sees your capabilities and vulnerabilities in
terms of IO, the battlefield, and PIR.
-Understand the enemy's decision-making process.
-Identify the enemy's critical IO nodes.
-Develop enemy leader personality profiles.
-Understand the enemy's decision-making doctrine, tactics, and standard
- Protecting critical and vulnerable friendly IO.
-Establish open-source processes to obtain, process, provide, secure,
and release critical IO information, including PA, CA, governmental,
and nongovernmental information within legal and policy constraints.
-Establish and maintain critical, secure, intertheater/intratheater,
military communications and computer networks that support IO; for example,
digitization, RCP, situational awareness, battlefield visualization,
distribution, and C2 across the battle space.
-Assess friendly C2 vulnerabilities and C2-protect operations continuously
and adjust to maintain C2 effectiveness.
-Achieve C2 protection in support of data integrity and infrastructure
protection, IO/C2 node protection, spectrum superiority/control, and
-Establish procedures to regain information dominance when it is discovered
that the enemy has achieved information dominance.
- Attacking critical enemy IO vulnerabilities.
-Establish C2-attack targeting and BDA and establish links to expedite
dissemination of adversary information, to include timely sensor-to-shooter
-Attack, deny, degrade, exploit, and/or influence adversary C4I/C2W
capabilities or other operations using lethal and nonlethal means.