Table of Content
Microprocessing, miniaturization, communications, and space technologies
have combined to permit almost real-time intelligence and information
sharing, distributed decision making, and rapid execution of orders
from a wide variety of forces and systems for concentrated effect.
INFOSYS allow the commander to view and understand his battlespace,
communicate his intent, lead his forces, and disseminate pertinent information
throughout his chain of command and his AO. Effective military and nonmilitary
INFOSYS help the staff get the right information to the right location
in time to allow commanders to make quality decisions and take appropriate
actions. This chapter describes how INFOSYS operate as part of IO. Specifically,
the focus is on the functions, role, security, and management of INFOSYS.
These INFOSYS consist of--
The entire infrastructure, organization, personnel, and components
that collect, process, store, transmit, display, disseminate, and
act on information.
INFOSYS include personnel, machines, manual or automated procedures,
and systems that allow collection, processing, dissemination, and display
of information. These functions cover all aspects of the organization,
providing commanders with an accurate, relevant, common picture and a
common situational awareness. Accordingly, a commander should consider
his staff as part of the INFOSYS because its chief function is to plan
and integrate IO. INFOSYS collect, transport, process, disseminate, and
protect information in support of the CCIR. In addition, INFOSYS enable
the commander to use information effectively to maintain an accurate view
of his battlespace, coordinate the activities of his tactical forces,
and help shape his MIE.
INFOSYS directly support battle command; however, all aspects of land
warfare--operations, logistics, planning, and intelligence--depend on
a responsive information system infrastructure. INFOSYS are able to simultaneously
support current operational deployments and future contingencies. Interoperability
and flexibility are critical characteristics of any INFOSYS, especially
given the requirement for Army forces to conduct force projection and
split-based operations using strategic systems.
The role of INFOSYS is to provide the infrastructure that allows the
Army to interface with the GII. INFOSYS enable the integration
of all IO activities. INFOSYS form the architecture that--
- Supports the staff process.
- Supports the decision-making process.
- Provides the relevant common picture that helps synchronize force
- Links sensors, shooters, and commanders.
- Supports C2-attack and C2-protect capabilities.
The accelerated development of information technologies has created new
techniques for managing, transporting, processing, and presenting data.
These include imagery, video, color graphics and digital overlays, mapping,
and data base technology.
With the revolution of information technology, developments in satellite
communications, network and computer technology, and the infrastructure
of military and nonmilitary INFOSYS combine to provide the commander with
a global reach capability. See Figure 5-1. Communications
and automation architecture allow for modular C2 support for force tailoring
during any phase of an operation. Operations take place in a global environment
and demand information from a host of information sources. Military and
nonmilitary INFOSYS provide that global capability to support commanders
and units across the range of operations. Discussion includes the INFOSYS,
the principles that form the foundation for their support, and the direction
of future INFOSYS technology.
Figure 5-1. Global Communications Network
Military Information Systems
Military INFOSYS integrate fielded and developmental battlefield automation
systems and communications to functionally link strategic, operational,
and tactical headquarters. INFOSYS maximize available information networks
through seamless connectivity as well as C4 interoperability. Figure
5-2 depicts the relationships of strategic, operational, and tactical
architectures that tie the many distributed elements into an integrated,
interoperable, and cohesive network.
Figure 5-2. Seamless Architecture
JOINT GLOBAL COMMAND AND CONTROL SYSTEM
The primary national warfighting C2 information system is the joint Global
Command and Control System (GCCS), which interfaces with the Army Global
Command and Control System (AGCCS).
ARMY GLOBAL COMMAND AND CONTROL SYSTEM
AGCCS is a seamless C2 system operating at the upper echelons of the
ABCS and supports C2 for echelon-above-corps units.
ARMY BATTLE COMMAND SYSTEM
ABCS is the primary Army warfighting C2 INFOSYS and employs a mix of
fixed/semifixed installations and mobile networks, depending on the subsystem.
ABCS is interoperable with theater, joint, and combined C2 systems across
the full range of BOS functions. It is vertically and horizontally integrated
at the tactical and operational levels. ABCS provides connectivity to
combat information data bases and processes information pertaining to
each BOS. In addition to the theater-level AGCCS, the other components
of the ABCS include the Army Tactical Command and Control System (ATCCS)
and the Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below System (FBCB2).
Army Tactical Command and Control System
ATCCS is linked directly to AGCCS, providing the framework of seamless
connectivity from brigade to corps. Moreover, it integrates the traditional
disparate stovepipe functions into a coherent, seamless infrastructure
that binds the BOS together. Figure 5-3
depicts this INFOSYS architecture. Tactical internet capabilities to establish
the use and allocation of new IO capabilities offered by digitization
of tactical forces are in development. The tactical internet has both
operational and systems information architectures. The operational architecture
is for required connectivity of force elements and the type and volume
of digital information-sharing by elements within the force. The system
architecture is for specific hardware and software to provide connectivity
and dissemination of battle command information.The two evolving architectures
account for predetermined user information exchange requirements throughout
the tactical force.
Each node of the tactical internet can provide information services while
on the move. Network management is an important feature of the tactical
internet and is highly critical to the successful delivery of information
across the battlefield. It enables the tactical information manager to
track tactical users on the battlefield. It provides a tool to assist
in the dynamic configuration of battle command information networks needed
to conduct tactical IO.
Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below System.
In the near term, the FBCB2 system employs the GPS (POS/NAV) and
communicates over the single-channel ground and airborne radio system/enhanced
position location reporting system (SINCGARS/EPLRS) and the mobile subscriber
equipment/tactical packet network (MSE/TPN). These systems form an integrated
network to move information (data) between higher and lower echelons (vertically)
and between adjacent organizations (horizontally) without routing through
the brigade headquarters. Moreover, FBCB2 provides digital connectivity
from brigade to weapons systems or platform level. It transitions from
a network of three separate systems to a homogeneous network and system
of systems comprised of--
- Appliqué--a family of laptop-sized computers connected to navigation
devices and radios to provide processing and display capabilities to
platforms without an embedded processor.
- Tactical Internet--a battlefield communication systems networked
together using commercially based internet protocols.
Figure 5-3. Army Information System Architecture
Nonmilitary Information Systems
Information technology is growing exponentially and transforming how
the world conducts business, diplomacy, and war, requiring that commanders
have a broader and externally oriented view of all sources of INFOSYS
when executing IO. Moreover, DOD has limited authority for securing this
civilian infrastructure or influencing the content of its products. Technological
improvements in mobility, directed-energy weapons, digitization, and sensors
continue to reduce factors of time and space and demand faster tempos
of operation across vast areas.
Increasing global population, rapidly expanding world economic markets,
and unprecedented advances in INFOSYS technology continue to perpetuate
a global explosion of information networks of a nonmilitary or commercial
nature. These ever-increasing networks are rapidly creating a global web
or infosphere of information. Important changes are occurring in
broadcast communications technology, computing, and space-based technology.
The global nature and speed of news broadcasts can elevate apparently
obscure events into international spectacles and has created a market
for news known as infotainment. The number of players in the GIE
are growing rapidly and sharing new information over computer networks
at a steadily increasing rate.
Cellular communications and data compression advances increasingly provide
greater communications freedom to individuals in ever wider regions of
the globe. These advances enable individual soldiers as well as independent
media or other actors to independently reach home using the internet or
broadcast and publication sources. Potential sources of immediate information
and the number and variety of MIE influences (both intentional and inadvertent)
are rapidly multiplying. The cumulative effects of these changes permanently
alter the shape of organizations and C4I architectures in ways that are
just becoming evident.
- Networks are, in many fields, supplanting traditional hierarchies
as the major organizing concept.
- In the business world, greater connectivity and access to information
at all levels is eliminating much of the status-monitoring functions
performed by middle management.
- New ways of thinking and operating are necessary because elements
that are relatively low in an organization now have the information
to make and execute decisions.
Like the rest of the nation, the Army relies on elements of an information
environment it does not control. These nonmilitary INFOSYS include--
- US and host nation PSNs and postal and telegraph systems.
- Commercial communications satellite systems such as intelligence satellites
(INTELSAT) and international maritime satellites (INMARSAT).
- Commercial receivers that use precision, space-based navigation systems
such as GPS.
- Electric power systems that support information networks.
- Commercially developed software applications.
- Commercial, international news media.
- Public-accessed data bases and bulletin boards.
In 1944, at the Battle of Arnhem, the British First Airborne Division
landed with the wrong radio crystals. They couldn't communicate with the
outside, not even to their relief column at Nijmegen, a few miles away.
They were isolated, under attack by superior numbers, and surprised at
being dropped where they weren't supposed to be. During the entire multiday
battle, members of the Dutch resistance in Arnhem were routinely talking
to the counterparts in Nijmegen by telephone, because the national telephone
system had not been taken down. It never occurred to a single paratrooper
to knock on the door of a house and call Nijmegen, because the battlefield
had been defined outside the civilian infrastructure. The Dutch underground
assumed the paratroopers were talking by radio, and the paratroopers had
never thought about using the civilian infrastructure.
The availability of nonmilitary INFOSYS often offer the command an alternative
means to satisfy its informational C2 needs, but only after a careful
assessment of security risks. As an additional benefit, use of available
nonmilitary INFOSYS may reduce the requirement for deployed military information
system packages. Operational use of a nonmilitary system allows planners
to compensate for system shortages and to meet the surge of information
requirements in the early stages of deployment.
The J6/G6 is responsible for standardization of nonmilitary equipment
and software used throughout the AO. However, planners have to ensure
the deployed modular INFOSYS packages implement open, nonproprietary,
commonly accepted standards and protocols to interface with nonmilitary
systems. Proper use of INFOSYS creates new challenges at individual user,
organization, and system levels. Planners should consider these challenges
in IO planning because they will affect the end user and the information
The user will be challenged by the digitization of the battlefield, by
interface requirements between the operator and the system, and by the
need to develop effective training strategies. The optimal use of INFOSYS
ultimately depends on the availability of quality soldiers and leaders
who are trained to employ advanced INFOSYS technology. Organizations will
be challenged to develop flexible task-organization strategies that use
the INFOSYS to adapt to the wide range of different conditions existing
in the GIE. In addition, organizations will improve their battlefield
functional capability in a digital environment by using advanced computer
applications and tools. System challenges will emerge as a result of--
- Constantly advancing technology.
- Uneven distribution of early generation equipment mixed with new,
improved digital INFOSYS.
- Limited EMS availability.
- The search for commercial-off-the-shelf products available for use
within the INFOSYS architecture.
Meeting these challenges will enable and enhance the conduct of future
Signal planning increases the commander's options by providing the
requisite signal planning support systems to pass critical information
at decisive times, thus leveraging and exploiting tactical success and
facilitating future operations.
Throughout all force-projection stages, a paramount need exists for a
signal support means to transport information from the sustaining
base power-projection platform at CONUS installations, through
strategic gateways, to the forward-most warfighters. Signal support requirements
to fulfill this task are enormous and vary greatly, depending on the type
of military operation.
Information battlespace requires an end-to-end, protected, seamless,
multigigabyte information-transfer and processing capability for the warfighter
to conduct IO virtually anywhere at any time. This capability must be
a multimedia system of systems that transports video, imagery, data, and
voice information to create an infosphere that the battle commander can
plug-in and pull what he needs to visualize the battle
from the current state to a successful end state. The signal support mission-essential
tasks to project and construct the infosphere are to--
- Link the force to the infosphere to achieve seamless global
- Transport information with broadband, high-capacity systems
optimizing satellites and terrestrial signal support to connect CONUS,
installation sustaining bases (ISBs), and joint operational areas (JOAs).
- Reach back through strategic entry points to power-projection
platforms and information fusion centers.
- Extend the communication range of battle command operations
centers and fighting platforms by providing C4 for mobile operations
The enabling objective of signal support to IO is to provide the warfighter
the capabilities he needs to obtain and share in near real-time. Signal
support requires the total integration of all information management functions
into a system of systems or ABCS. ABCS provides knowledge-based information
that is adaptable and responsive to the commander's IO requirements. The
ABCS has a suite of C4 hardware and software capable of collecting,
processing, fusing, managing, transporting, disseminating, displaying,
and protecting force-level information (status) and force-level
control information (intent, plans, orders). The signal support mission-essential
tasks to enable IO are to--
Digitize, compress, and broadcast multimedia battle
command information in five categories, using increased bandwidth, high-efficiency
transport systems. The multimedia categories control, monitor, alert,
inquire, and explore critical information.
Encrypt and provide multilevel information security.
Manage information networks with smart software that dynamically
allocates throughput capacity on demand and then routes and disseminates
Display via ABCS, a three-dimensional interactive knowledge-based
relevant common picture (RCP).
While the core of the twentieth century land warfare has been the
tank, the core of the twenty-first century will be the computer.
General Gordon Sullivan, CSA (1993)
As technology advances, the conduct of operations will continue to change.
Each advance in information technology will--
- Help leaders form a more complete picture of the battlespace.
- Generate the potential for faster, higher quality decisions.
- Support more rapid maneuver in terms of both time and space.
- Increase a unit's flexibility and agility.
Nevertheless, technology is only an enabling tool. Quality soldiers and
well-trained leaders remain the true centerpiece to successfully planning
and operating this increasingly digitized and automated information system
of systems. The following examples illustrate where information technology
could enable military operations by the turn of this century.
- Today, tactical radio communications networks exist separately with
no automatic routing or interconnection between nets. On the future
digitized battlefield, a tactical internet capability will enable direct
communications among and between virtually all users. This could enable
a whole new level of horizontal integration, coordination, and synchronization
that will coexist with the current vertical system (Figure
- Direct broadcast satellites enable wide access to information at various
echelons in real time or near-real time. This in turn enables a new
level of empowerment and self initiative for lower echelons.
- Image compression and transmission technologies will allow transfer
of images and video from numerous sensors and platforms, enabling better
understanding of battlespace for planning, rehearsal, and mission execution.
- Finally, multimedia technology will enable three-dimensional presentation
of imagery and graphics to help commanders visualize their battlespace
for more effective training, planning, rehearsal, and execution.
Figure 5-4. Horizontal and Vertical INFOSYS
Due to the present and ever-increasing dependence upon automated INFOSYS
within the Army, INFOSEC and information systems security (ISS) has become
critical. In both war and peace, computer systems and networks on which
units rely for logistics, personnel, administration, maintenance, and
financial data processing and transfer are vulnerable to attack. Often,
the internet is a favorite communication platform for intruders. Gaining
access to a unit's computer and communications network can be accomplished
by a wide range of methods and techniques. Some of the more common methods
- Inserting malicious software through contractors.
- Tracking software maintenance changes and system operations activities.
- Alternating access paths or sniffer devices that trap information
about traffic and passwords.
These intrusions may be initiated during peacetime or at any point in
an operation. It is even possible that a military system could come from
the factory with an embedded logic bomb or virus. In the past,
new commercial floppy disks used by government agencies have been found
to contain a virus upon delivery from the factory.
Accordingly, security measures and procedures must actively as well as
passively preserve the confidentiality, integrity, and functionality of
INFOSYS. Protection requirements include near-real-time measures that
detect intrusions and alterations, then react and counteract by restoring
the INFOSYS needed by commanders to support the military operation. A
series of security measures that are facets of an overall C2-protect effort
ensure ISS. The three primary security measures are--
- Procedures for quality assurance.
- Denial of unauthorized intrusion.
- Hardening of programs.
In 1994 a computer hacker operating from the United Kingdom attacked
the Rome Air Development Center at Griffiss Air Force Base, NY, where
he compromised the security of 30 systems and penetrated more than 100
other systems before being caught in a 26-day international electronic
manhunt. The victims included the South Korean Atomic Research Institute,
NASA, the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, and the Jet Propulsion
Laboratory in California.
The Defense Information Systems Agency estimates that DOD experienced
231,000 incidents, or security intrusions, in 1994. These incidents included
destruction of data, modification of data or software, stolen data or
software, and shut-down of hosts or networks. Affected DOD functions include--
- Ballistic weapons research.
- Inventory and property accounting.
- Knowledge-based simulation.
- Payroll and business support.
- Mail hub for postwide electronic mail.
US Senate Permanent
Subcommittee on Investigations, June 1996
Procedures for Quality Assurance
Quality assurance procedures include configuration control and reduction
of inadvertent corruption of both data and processes. In order to protect
automated INFOSYS, the first step is to understand the threat against
them. Security threats to INFOSYS fall into two categories:
- Compromise of data and information.
- Denial, corruption, or loss of service.
Protection Against Intrusion
Protection against intrusion into friendly computer networks is accomplished
through denying unauthorized entry into these systems. The vast percentage
of intrusion results from human error. Training and OPSEC compliance by
system managers, operators, and users are the best measures to combat
system compromises. In addition, systems administrators must be able to
track down intruders.
Hardening of Programs
In addition to tracking down intruders, system programs should be hardened
against intruders' attempts to gain vital information or damage information
flow. No protection plan is perfect, and protection/restoration resources
are finite. OPLANs and OPORDs specify the priorities of protection efforts.
INFOSYS management consists of prioritizing information in a limited
communications environment. The primary purpose of automated and manual
INFOSYS is to achieve an information advantage by using and managing information
for timely and accurate decision making in any type of operation. The
focus of battle staffs is to leverage available technology by employing
INFOSYS that give the commander the desired information at the right time
and the right place. See Appendix C.
General consensus is that the desire for information by higher headquarters
is quickly exceeding the subordinate commander's ability to provide
it in a timely manner. Commanders at all levels must carefully define
their critical requirements.
CALL Newsletter, July 1994
All information that the staff provides is predicated upon the commander's
intent, concept of operations, and supporting commander's CCIRs. The CCIRs
govern the C4I architecture and its use. The CCIRs define the commander's
information needs, thus focusing the staff and INFOSYS support on the
rapid acquisition, fusion, and analysis of information that yields knowledge-based
operations. The INFOSYS augment routine or periodic reports (established
by unit SOPs) with specific requests for information from BOSs or other
Technical Systems Management
The ABCS spans several systems and requires technical management with
similar spans. INFOSYS provide an efficient and rapid means of retrieving
information, enabling the battle staff to develop and maintain a single,
virtual (or logical) data base that satisfies both current and anticipated
CCIRs. This allows battle staffs to continue coordinating, integrating,
and synchronizing current and future IO. The ABCS, which works primarily
at the SECRET classification level, poses both a technical and tactical
Technically, the network of ABCS devices function as a seamless whole
with redundant paths. Data flow among computers does not require intensive
operator action. However, understanding and interacting with the information
received is generally a user requirement. The INFOSYS architecture covers
the entire battlefield, enabling the command and control of forces. This
architecture consists of integrated local area networks (LANs), wide area
networks (WANs), and battlefield automated systems integrated into a single,
seamless system subject only to the requirements of multilevel security
(MLS) as depicted in Figure 5-5.
Figure 5-5. Battlefield Architecture Information Integration
INFOSYS allow the commander and his staff to distribute critical information
between higher, lower, adjacent, joint, and multinational forces. Voice
traffic and data distribution are the primary methods of passing this
information. Voice traffic includes user-to-user, conference, and broadcast
type of transmission. Data distribution includes formal record traffic
(joint message text), informal record traffic (facsimile and electronic
mail), system-to-system data, and POS/NAV data.
Technical systems management connects all INFOSYS devices into a multilevel
secure network that supports the commander's concept of operation and
maintains the correct security levels at each network node throughout
the battle. Technical systems management requirements include--
- Planning the INFOSYS network.
- Planning communications connectivity.
- Planning network security.
- Allocating frequencies.
- Controlling and monitoring the connection of systems devices to one
another and to supporting communications systems.
- Reconfiguring the network as required by the tactical situation or
- Maintaining the network.
- Maximizing network performance.
Tactically, the information flow must support the needs of commanders.
Commanders and staffs must have the information they need to plan, direct,
control, and coordinate an operation. The information must be secure and
readily available. Tactical systems management ensures that information
is exchanged inside and outside the unit and made available according
to the needs of commanders and staffs to support the tactical plan.
Within each BOS, the information flow, processing, and storage are managed
according to the needs of the BOS. Flow, processing, and storage of information
among BOSs are collectively managed according to the needs of the overall
force-level commander. Tactical systems management includes--
- Planning information exchanges.
- Planning data base locations and replications.
- Planning continuity of operations (including security).
- Controlling and monitoring information exchanges and data base transactions.
- Implementing continuity of operations plans as required.
- Planning for degradation of the network.
Appendix C contains detailed information on
Electromagnetic Spectrum Management
In a dynamic battlespace, each echelon of command must effectively contribute
to achieving a state of information dominance. To do so, it uses the EMS
for its own purposes, while effectively preventing similar use by an adversary.
The EMS is a valuable and finite resource. Controlling it is the linchpin
for digitization. Commanders must have a battle staff with knowledge of
The J6/G6 or signal officer has staff responsibility for battlefield
spectrum management. The spectrum manager under his supervision manages
all spectrum use. Major considerations in IO planning include deconfliction
of frequencies, development of joint signal operating instructions (JSOI),
and development of the joint restricted frequency list (JRFL), as well
as all other bandwidth requirements levied by intelligence, C2W, CA, PA,
and signal elements. These elements must be balanced to ensure that users
maximize the EMS effectively.
Uncontested ownership of the EMS is not guaranteed. However, to gain
control of the flow and content of information, units must effectively
manage the EMS to reduce the likelihood of electromagnetic interference
(EMI). For unopposed entry operations, the status of forces agreement
made with a host nation defines frequency provisions and procedures to
be followed in all frequency and radio regularity matters. Parts of the
spectrum are reserved by nations and other international agencies and
therefore are not available for use by the US military.
Where agreements do not exist, coordination of frequency use is made
through DOS. The United Nations (UN) recognizes the International Telecommunications
Union (ITU) as the specialized agency in the telecommunications field.
The ITU allocates the international radio frequency spectrum, registers
frequency assignments, and coordinates resolving interference. Forced
entry operations create the greatest demands for flexible and adaptive
spectrum management. An adversary will use the spectrum as he sees fit,
creating potential interference with friendly usage. For example, a television
station may interfere with combat net radios, yet the OPLAN may call for
capturing the station intact for future friendly use, thereby hindering
efforts to eliminate the interference. During initial spectrum planning,
planners must consider adversary spectrum usage and management and adapt
to events as they unfold.
Communications dominate war; they are the most important single
element in strategy.