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Lesson Index: [ Introduction | Lesson Objective | Overview | EBO Defined | Effects Classification | Effects-Based vs Objective-Based | Why EBO? | National Strategic EBO | Combatant Commander EBO | EBO Example—Allied Force | Summary ]

Title: Effects Classification

Action: Show effects definition from previous screen:

Effects
refer to the full range of outcomes, events, or consequences of actions which can be derived from any instrument of national power: economic, military, diplomatic, or information. Effects occur across the spectrum of conflict, from peace to major theater war, and at all levels from the strategic down to the tactical

Voice: The term “effects” is inherently complex and difficult to understand—even with a definition. Therefore, it is helpful to classify, or break effects down into categories that may be more easily understood.

Action: Replace all with the two following headers on the left side of the screen:

Direct Effects (1st-order)

Indirect Effects (2nd, 3rd,...nth-order)

Voice: Basically, effects can be categorized as direct and indirect effects. A direct effect is the result of actions with no intervening effect or mechanism between the act and objective.

Action: Add the SEAD and Reduce Anti-air boxes as well as Action, Effect, and Objective labels at the top of the screen. SEAD Attacks is the action and Reduce Anti-air is the objective.

Voice: Consider the role of Suppression of Enemy Air Defense or SEAD attacks in achieving a reduction of enemy anti-air capability.

Action: Add SAMs & Radars Destroyed box as the effect and connect it with a “direct” arrow to the Reduce Anti-air box.

Voice: The physical destruction of Surface to Air Missiles or SAMs and radars is a direct effect supporting the objective. Direct effects can trigger additional outcomes referred to as indirect effects that can also affect the objective.

Action: Add SAMs Refuse to Engage box below with an arrow pointing from SAMs & Radars Destroyed box to it and “2nd Order” arrow connecting this new box to the first objective.

Voice: Operators at functional SAM sites may refuse to engage aircraft for fear of being attacked. This effect also supports the objective. The intimidation of the SAM operators is known as a second-order effect. Direct effects are usually easy to recognize while indirect effects often are not.

Action: Add Artillery Refuses to Engage effect connected with arrow from SAMs Refuse to Engage effect, and new objective Reduce Enemy Artillery connected with arrow from Artillery Refuses to Engage.

Voice: Suppose the word got out to artillery crews that the SAM crews were refusing to use their weapons. The artillery crews might hesitate to fire their weapons and expose themselves to counter-battery fire. This would be a third-order effect of the SEAD attacks that supports an objective of the ground component commander.

Action: The boxes are replaced by new boxes that represent types of direct and indirect effects. When the mouse is over the effects, the text below each type is displayed.

Direct

Physical
Effect created by the direct impact through physical alteration on the object or system targeted by the application of military action
Functional
Direct or indirect effect of an attack or operation on the ability of a target to function properly. In essence, it answers the question, to what extent has the function of the target been degraded or affected by those actions.
Psychological
The result of actions that influence emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of foreign governments, organizations, groups, and individuals.
Collateral
Outcomes that result when something occurs other than what was intended. These outcomes may be either positive or negative to the original objective. In one sense, collateral effects may be the incidental direct or indirect effects (usually unintentional) that cause injury or damage to persons, objects, or systems. In a broader perspective, collateral effects cover a wide array of possible downstream results.

Indirect

Psychological
The result of actions that influence emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of foreign governments, organizations, groups, and individuals.
Collateral
Outcomes that result when something occurs other than what was intended. These outcomes may be either positive or negative to the original objective. In one sense, collateral effects may be the incidental direct or indirect effects (usually unintentional) that cause injury or damage to persons, objects, or systems. In a broader perspective, collateral effects cover a wide array of possible downstream results.
Functional
Direct or indirect effect of an attack or operation on the ability of a target to function properly. In essence, it answers the question, to what extent has the function of the target been degraded or affected by those actions.
Cumulative
The aggregate result of many direct or indirect effects against an adversary. Typically, a cumulative effect flows from lower-to-higher levels of employment and occurs at the higher levels; however, it may occur at the same level as a contributing lower-order effect.
Cascading
An indirect effect that ripples through an adversary system, often affecting other systems. Typically, a cascading effect flows from higher-to-lower levels of employment and is the result of influencing nodes that are critical to multiple adversary systems. The effect on the German economy of bombing the rail marshalling yards in WW II is an example.
Systemic
Effect on the operation of a specific system or systems. In essence, it answers the question to what degree has the system or systems been degraded or affected by those actions directed against it.

Voice: Various types of effects have been defined. Some are direct, some are indirect, and some can be either. Roll your cursor over the terms for a brief description.

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