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Lesson Index: [ Introduction | Lesson Objective | Overview | Organization of Joint Forces | Air & Space Expeditionary Task Force | AETF Composition | Air & Space Expeditionary Forces | AETF Command Structure | NOBLE ANVIL AETF | COMAFFOR-Key Concepts | Dual Chain of Command | Evolution of JFACC Concept | JFACC Evolution Mitchell | JFACC Evolution Kenney | JFACC Evolution Momyer | JFACC Evolution Post-Vietnam | Early JFACC Exercises | Impediments to JFACC Concept | JFACC in Desert Storm | JFACC in Joint Doctrine | Selecting a JFACC | JFACC Authority & Responsibility | Supported/Supporting Commander | Purpose of JFACC | JFACC Command Relationships | JFACC Operations | JFACC Basing Options | Differing Perspectives of JFACC | Integration of Assets | Interdiction and Deep Operations | Theater Air & Missile Defense | Summary | Quiz ]

Title: Early JFACC Exercises

Action: Begin with a background collage that has several images of the different forces operations integrated into one picture, which is a graphical representation of these seperate entities becoming one dynamic fighting force. Also show the following text blocks:

JFACC Debate

Voice: The JFACC concept was first implemented in two major joint exercises, OCEAN VENTURE 88 AND SOLID SHIELD 89. The doctrinal disagreement continued over the role of the JFACC. The principal argument stemmed from whether the JFACC was a coordinator or a commander. Naturally, the Air Force believed the JFACC required command authority in accordance with the tenet of centralized control and decentralized execution. In exercise SOLID SHIELD 89,

Action: Remove the previous blocks of text and replace with an organizational chart. This chart will be spearheaded by the Joint Force Commander, trailed by the commanders of each component (Army, Navy, Air Force, and USMC), on down to the JFACC under each service. The graphic will be titled:


Voice: joint doctrine specified that one of the component commanders, presumably the one with the most air power and the ability to command and control forces at the theater level, would be dual-hatted as the JFACC. In this case, the Air Force component commander should have been dual-hatted as the JFACC.

Action: Present a second graphic except the JFACC will parallel the Joint Force Commander and be connected by an arrow, with the following title and bullet lists:

JFACC reality for SOLID SHIELD 89

  • Staff organization for JFC
  • Lacked command authority
  • Acted as coordinator of air services
  • 12 AF cited exercise as a failure!

    Voice: What actually happened in SOLID SHIELD 89 was that the JFACC was merely a staff organization working for the JFC. In other words, the JFACC had no command authority. At most, the JFACC acted as an overall coordinator for the air effort. This command arrangement was similar to the manner in which air power was applied during the Vietnam War. The arrangement was a far cry from the way in which airmen envisioned the concept. Not surprisingly, the Air Force component cited exercise SOLID SHIELD 89 as a failure!

    [Back: JFACC Evolution Post-Vietnam | Next: Impediments to JFACC Concept]