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Lesson Index: [ Introduction | Lesson Objective | Overview | Army—The Purpose | Early Army Aviation | Aviation Doctrine Evolves | Operations in the Battlespace | Types of Operations | Operations in the AO | Control Measures | Airpower—Army Perspective | Army—Summary | Navy—Purpose | Early Naval Aviation | Evolution of the Navy Mission | Evolution of Naval Doctrine | Naval Warfighting | Battlespace Dominance | Power Projection | The Expeditionary Navy | Carrier Battle Group (CVBG) | Amphibious Ready Group | Navy Perspective on Airpower | Navy Summary | USMC—Introduction | Early Marine Aviation | Marine Aviation Evolves | The MAGTF | Scalable MAGTF | USMC Doctrine | Maneuver Warfare | Marine Ethos and Combined Arms | Marine Airpower Perspective | USMC—Summary | Summary | Quiz ]

Title: Operations in the AO

Action: A graphic of a geographical area with terrain is shown. As the categories of operations, “sustaining,” “decisive,” and “shaping” are mentioned in the narration, they are shown on the upper part of the screen. The terrain is divided into the three sections as mentioned.

Voice: Within the AO, the Army organizes its forces in terms of function and space. Functionally, forces are allocated to three categories of operations: decisive, shaping, and sustaining. In the case of linear operations like traditional maneuver combat, the commander will often describe operations in spatial terms: rear, close, and deep.

Action: Graphics are added to the model to simulate army combat units in position for battle in the close range. The following pop-up box is shown as mentioned:

Decisive
are those that directly accomplish the task assigned and conclusively determine the outcome of major operations, battles, and engagements. The decisive operation may include multiple actions conducted simultaneously throughout the AO

Voice: Close operations occur in contact with the enemy. Generally, a commander will plan to conduct the decisive operation within the close area.

Action: More graphics are added to the model to simulate army combat units in position for battle in the deep range. The following pop-up box is shown as mentioned:

Shaping Operations
create and preserve conditions for the success of the decisive operation. They include lethal and non-lethal activities that support the decisive operation by affecting enemy capabilities and forces, or by influencing enemy decisions. They may occur before, concurrently with, or after the start of the decisive operation..

Voice: The deep area is an area forward of the close area that commanders use to shape enemy forces. Shaping operations are conducted throughout the AO, not just in the deep area. They create and preserve conditions for the success of the decisive operation and may occur before, concurrently with, or after the start of the decisive operation. Shaping operations in the deep area may involve forces in close combat.

Action: More graphics are added to the model to simulate army combat units in position for battle in the rear range. The following pop-up box is shown as mentioned:

Sustaining Operations
generate and maintain combat power by enabling shaping and decisive operations through combat service support, rear area and base security, movement control, terrain management, and infrastructure development activities.

Voice: The rear area is provided primarily for the performance of support functions and is where the majority of the echelon’s sustaining operations occur. Operations in rear areas assure freedom of action and continuity of operations, sustainment, and command and control. The diagram depicts traditional linear operations where forces move together against an enemy in concert with adjacent units. As you can see, the Army likes to put lines on their maps. We’ll add a couple more for good measure.

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