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Title: Defensive Counterinformation

Action: Begin by showing the graphic from the introduction that depicts the synergistic application of air, space, and information systems. Then transition into a graphic that shows how intelligence has improved from lanterns and signaling mirrors in 1300-1400 to global information structures of today. Also, show the following bullets that link to static html pages:

Computer Network Defense, Counterdeception, Counterintelligence, Counterpropaganda, Electronic Protect, PA Operations, OPSEC, and Information Assurance

Voice: Since information plays such a large part in air and space power, we’ve come to increasingly depend upon it. This dependency breeds a certain vulnerability. Without information dominance, air and space power would be much less effective. To protect the information dominance that we’ve come to rely upon, we must defend our information and information systems. Not surprisingly, defensive counterinformation activities are, for the most part, the defensive reflection of OCI activities but also include the proactive security measures of OPSEC and information assurance. You can learn more about each of these by clicking on the links.

Computer Network Defense (CND):

Computer Network Defense (CND) - is actions taken to plan and direct responses to unauthorized activity in defense of Air Force information systems and computer networks. CND actions include analyzing network activity to determine the appropriate course of action (COA) to defend Air Force networks.


Counterdeception: the effort to gain advantage from, or negate, neutralize, or diminish the effects of, a foreign deception operation.
Counterdeception activities: Upon identification of an adversary deception operation, commanders can choose among several courses of action:


“The enemy’s spies who have come to spy on us must be sought out, tempted with bribes, led away and comfortably housed. Thus they will become double agents and available for our service.”
Sun Tzu, The Art of War

Counterintelligence (CI) protects operations, information systems, technology, facilities, personnel, and other resources from illegal clandestine acts by foreign intelligence services, terrorists groups, and other elements.

Counterintelligence capabilities include:

The Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI) initiates and conducts all Air Force counterintelligence investigations, activities, operations, collections, and other related CI activities. AFOSI provides the commander a uniquely flexible ability that can quickly transition from direct counterintelligence support to law enforcement.


Counterpropoganda - involves those efforts to negate, neutralize, diminish the effects of, or gain advantage from foreign psychological operations or propaganda efforts. Counterpropaganda efforts can range from public affairs (PA) operations to physical destruction of adversary psychological operations resources and capabilities. PA operations can use truthful, accurate information to counter adversary propaganda

Electronic Protection:

Electronic Protection - is primarily the defensive aspect of electronic warfare. It is focused on protecting personnel, facilities, and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy employment of electronic warfare that degrade, neutralize, or destroy friendly combat capability.

EP methods include:

Public Affairs Operations:

Commanders should make public affairs (PA) operations part of their defensive counterinformation planning. PA operations should be coordinated closely with, and can also directly support other defensive IW activities such as OPSEC and counterpropaganda efforts

Operations Security (OPSEC):

Operations Security (OPSEC)

“Little minds try to defend everything at once, but sensible people look at the main point only; they parry the worst blows and stand a little hurt if thereby they avoid a greater one. If you try to hold everything, you hold nothing.”
Frederick the Great, The Art of Modern War, 1940

“OPSEC is a process of identifying critical information and subsequently analyzing the friendly actions that accompany military operations and other activities to:
a. Identify those actions that can be observed by adversary intelligence systems;
b. Determine what indicators hostile intelligence systems might obtain that could be interpreted or pieced together to derive critical information in time to be useful to adversaries; and
c. Select and execute measures that eliminate or reduce to an acceptable level the vulnerabilities of friendly actions to adversary exploitation.”

OPSEC is a process that can be applied to any military operation, whether offensive or defensive. To comprehend the definition above you must know:
Critical information Specific facts about friendly intentions, capabilities, and activities vitally needed by adversaries for them to plan and act effectively so as to guarantee failure or unacceptable consequences for friendly mission accomplishment
Indicators - Friendly detectable actions and open-source information that can be interpreted or pieced together by an adversary to derive critical information
Vulnerability - A condition in which friendly actions provide OPSEC indicators that may be obtained and accurately evaluated by an adversary in time to provide a basis for effective adversary decision making

Information Assurance (IA):

Information Assurance (IA) - those measures to protect and defend information and information systems by ensuring their:

IA is implemented as a defense-in-depth. IA activities are often closely integrated with computer network defense and and electronic protection activities and may appear to overlap with them. IA includes measures to detect, document, and counter threats to our information and information systems and encompass:

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