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Title: Offensive Counterinformation (OCI)

Action: Begin by showing the information superiority chart, highlight the defend and attack portions of the graph as they are defined in the narration:

Voice: You’ll recall that information warfare is the attack and defend portion of IO versus IIW’s gain and exploit functions. Offensive counterinformation is the attack part of IW.

Action: Bring in the following list and fade as each is mentioned in the narration:

DENY, DEGRADE, DISRUPT, DESTROY, DECEIVE

Voice: It includes activities where we use information as a weapon or attack the enemy’s information systems or just the information contained within them. OCI controls the information realm by denying, degrading, disrupting, destroying, or deceiving the enemy’s information or information systems through…

Action: The following list will fade in and link to a static html page, this page will contain some images of pamphlets dispersed throughout Iraq, in DESERT STORM:

Voice: …psychological operations or PSYOP, electronic warfare, military deception, physical attack, computer network attack, and public affairs operations. You can click each activity to learn more about it.

Psychological Operations (PSYOPS):

The supreme excellence is not to win a hundred victories in a hundred battles. The supreme excellence is to subdue the armies of your enemies without even having to fight them.
Sun Tzu

Planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of foreign governments, organizations, groups, and individuals. The purpose of psychological operations is to induce or reinforce foreign attitudes and behavior favorable to the originator’s objectives.
Jt Pub 1-02 (as quoted in AFDD 2-5.3)

  • Manipulate and manage adversary’s perception of the battlefield
  • Offensive – create fear, confusion, and paralysis in enemy troops
  • Defensive – preempt or dissuade hostile actions harmful to friendly forces
  • PSYOP leaflets induced terror in Iraqi troops and supported amphibious assault deception in DESERT STORM

    Leaflets, when combined with the use of the BLU-82, had a devastating effect on the morale of Iraqi soldiers in DESERT STORM

    Electronic Warfare:

    Electronic Warfare (EW)- Any military action involving the use of electromagnetic and directed energy to control the electromagnetic spectrum or to attack the enemy. EW spans the spectrum of IO operations.

  • Electronic Attack (EA)- That division of electronic warfare involving the use of electromagnetic energy, directed energy, or anti-radiation weapons to attack personnel, facilities, or equipment with the intent of degrading, neutralizing, or destroying enemy combat capability. (an OCI function)
  • That division of electronic warfare involving actions to search for, intercept, identify, and locate or localize sources of intentional and unintentional radiated electromagnetic energy for the purpose of immediate threat recognition, targeting, planning, and conduct of future operations. Thus, ES provides information required for threat avoidance, targeting, and homing. (an IIW function)
  • That division of electronic warfare involving passive and active means taken to protect personnel, facilities, and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy employment of electronic warfare that degrade, neutralize, or destroy friendly combat capability. (a DCI function)
  • Military Deception:

    “For the great majority of mankind are satisfied with appearances as though they were realities and are often more influenced by the things that seem than by those that are.”
    Machiavelli

    Military Deception – Actions executed to deliberately mislead adversary military decision makers as to friendly military capabilities, intentions, and operations, thereby causing the adversary to take specific actions (or inactions) that will contribute to the accomplishment of the friendly mission.
    Jt Pub 1-02 (as quoted in AFDD 2-5)

  • Requires thorough understanding of enemy decision process, biases, and preconceptions
  • Reinforcing a perception is easier than changing one
  • Coordinate deception operations with other operations to insure that deception efforts are protected
  • Integrate and deconflict with public affairs (PA) operations

  • Operation FORTITUDE NORTH - During WWII airpower heavily bombed the Pas de Calais area rather than Normandy, feeding the German bias for believing the former would be the invasion site.

    Physical Attack

    “...the purpose of physical attack in a counterinformation role is to affect adversary information or information systems by using a physical weapon to create a specific effect on the adversary.”
    AFDD 2-5

  • Effect determines whether a physical attack is an IW physical attack
  • IW physical attack targets adversary information or information systems or their supporting infrastructures
  • Examples include:

  • Computer Network Attack (CNA):

    Computer Network Attack (CNA) – Operations to disrupt, deny, degrade, or destroy information resident in computers and computer networks, or the computers and networks themselves

  • Computer and telecommunications systems are primary means of CNA—differentiating it from other IW attacks
  • Primary effect is to destroy adversary confidence in his information systems
  • Advantages of CNA include:

  • Public Affairs (PA) Operations:

    PA operations can be used for offensive counterinformation operations. PA operations can contribute to global influence and deterrence by making foreign leaders aware of US capabilities and by countering enemy propaganda with the truth. Communicating capabilities can be a force multiplier and may deter potential adversaries by “driving a crisis back to peace” before use of force becomes necessary

    The Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan recognizes Informational Flexible Deterrent Options (IFDOs) as an alternative for accomplishing operational missions other than “bombs on target.”

  • Gain and maintain public support through heightened awareness
  • Promote national and coalition policies, aims, and goals
  • Keeps issue in the news
  • Virtual force projection IFDO

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