Outline for System Innovation and Technological Integration
Shock and Awe is central to Rapid Dominance, and therefore must
serve as the key organizing principle for any rigorous examination
and exploitation of system concepts and technologies for Rapid
Dominance. Understanding the interplay between technology and
doctrine is not only or simply a straightforward matter of establishing
operational requirements and then seeking to attain them through
invention and design. It is a complex and interactive process
of experimentation and discovery wherein intellect, hard work,
endurance, and innovation must drive the use of technology. Rather
than make changes, however significant, to modifying current capabilities
or building newer, similar ones, Rapid Dominance seeks to identify
and field systems specifically designed to achieve Shock and Awesystems
that may break the mold much as the Model T Ford once did years
decoders in bioengineering laboratories, computer-aided design
tools used by engineers, vast database management systems in place
in corporate offices, computer-controlled machines enabling composite
materials, and the countless academic, business, and personal
computers are all evidence of the prominent and ever increasing
role information technologies have assumed in modern economies.
Many of the technologies underlying the Information Age are being
spearheaded by U.S. small business and its entrepreneurial culture.
Certainly, from the huge consumer electronics firms in Japan to
software development businesses in India, the rest of the world
participates and competes. But few can deny that U.S. industry
provides the leadership in and is the preeminent developer of
information technologies as they are most broadly defined. This
leadership position, properly leveraged, provides the United States
with an ever increasing military advantage over competing nations.
technology requires more than merely incorporating it into U.S.
forces; it is likely to include a significant redesign of both
forces and leadership to embrace these rapidly evolving technologies.
Many of the technologies that will support Rapid Dominance are
already discernible. Unlike the impact of nuclear weapons, it
is unlikely that a single technology or system will emerge to
produce Rapid Dominance. It will only be attainable through the
broadest integration of strategic concepts, doctrine, operational
needs, technological advances, system design, and appropriate
organization of command, control, training and education. And
only a large, immensely capable country such as the U.S. may be
able to achieve this.
seeks to integrate this confluence of strategy, technology, and
innovation. Four core characteristics were defined earlier as
knowledge of self, adversary, and the environment;
of execution; and
of the environment.
is illustrative rather than exhaustive of how technology can be
used in a broad system approach. Many of these technologies currently
are being addressed within the defense community. Analysts, military
strategists, acquisition planners, and even "futurists"
are wrestling with the meaning and consequences of the Information
Age. Our focus on systems and technologies begins with these four
of Self, Adversary, and Environment
In the modern
threat environment, it is difficult to estimate where the next
crisis may occur, let alone the next war. Even 5 years ago, who
would have foreseen the significant involvement of the U.S. military
in places like Somalia, Haiti, Rwanda, Bosnia, and the South China
Sea? To which hot spots can we expect to see U.S. troops deployed
over the next 5 years? Over the next 20? In this section we argue
that, in addition to improving our force capabilities, the U.S.
must develop an intelligence repository far more extensive than
during the Cold War, covering virtually all the important regions
and organizational structures throughout the world.
Cold War, intelligence agencies focused more on a bipolar world
and built sizable organizations to collect information on "the
other side." This same intelligence structure, in the main,
is in place today facing a multipolar world, where any number
of power structureswhether they be states, international
organizations, or even small groups of individualsmust be
monitored with an understanding that extends to their leadership,
culture, economic direction, and military capability.
As the technologies
relevant to knowing the adversary and his environment are examined,
an emerging theme is the clear shift from technology developments
that once resided within our government to those driven by commercial
demands. For example, the information technologies used by U.S.
intelligence agencies are of such complexity, importance, and
expense that they are referred to as "national assets"
and are developed and managed by large, dedicated organizations.
Even here, commercial companies are rapidly encroaching on what
once seemed to be an unassailable market position in Earth observation
systems. One may already purchase synthetic aperture radar interferometry
images from any number of sources, and panchromatic visual images
with one meter resolution will soon be available over the counter
for remarkably little cost. Indeed, the only real barrier to this
burgeoning market is the understandable concerns that governments
have with allowing such technology to be widely available. In
areas such as encryption and data security, commercial developers
are more likely to reach limits of government acceptance before
those of technological capability.
billions invested in communications systems, even the most modern
U.S. military communication systems often compare poorly with
commercial systems. While this has long been the case for fielded
systems, it is becoming true for even the most sophisticated research
and development programs being undertaken by defense organizations.
As a case
in point, one may consider a program recently initiated by the
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) called Battlefield
Awareness and Data Dissemination (BADD). At the heart of this
program, large amounts of data are collected within a vast database
residing on commercial computers and enterprise management systems.
This information is then disseminated to the troops through the
commercial Global Broadcast System (GBS) onto "set-top"
boxes, an enabling technology that was developed commercially.
Even with this leveraging of private industry, there is a real
question as to whether DARPA will be able to field a system that
would compete well with surprisingly similar commercial systems.
Internet channels planned by media industry giants such as BSkyB
will offer multi-megabit, interactive, digital data connections
to the Net merely as an enticement for subscribers to enroll for
their full digital broadcasting service (200 to 300 channels of
digital video and sound). Understanding that there is much more
to BADD than the little discussed here, one still almost wonders
whether DARPA could simply buy a subscription and connect it to
an appropriate, commercial, network management system. More to
the point, if even well funded and aggressive technology development
organizations such as DARPA find it difficult to remain ahead
of commercial advancements, there may be a fundamental lesson
to be learned regarding the management of defense-related technologies.
is comprised of five categories of knowledge and understanding:
a society's leadership; culture and values; the strategic, political,
economic, and physical environment; military capabilities and
orders of battle; and comprehensive battlefield information. Examples
of technologies and system approaches of potential relevance in
these areas are discussed below.
potential adversaries, coalition partners, and involved neutral
countries implies an infrastructure for acquiring an in-depth
knowledge about cultures, leadership values, and other driving
factors that allow us, when needed and on a timely basis, to get
"into their minds." Applicable technologies include
automated language translators, interactive and autonomous computer
simulations, advanced database systems for organizing and understanding
data and transactions of individuals and institutions, and computerized
educational systems for training and learning these skills.
sufficient and timely environmental information is crucial to
Rapid Dominance. Logistics, demographics, and infrastructure are
broad areas of collection along with geography, road/rail/ship
lanes, utility sites and corridors, manufacturing, government
sites, military and paramilitary facilities, population demographics,
economic and financial pressure points (such as oil wells or gold
mines), and major dams and bridges. Technologies used to provide
environmental awareness include traditional means such as satellites
that can be augmented with dynamic sensor management tools for
optimizing observation routines. The vast quantities of data that
reside on the world's computer networks, if properly exploited,
provide another rich source of information. Data mining tools,
such as Web crawlers, gatherers, brokers, and repositories that
pull and organize data from public networks, will be essential
to building a more complete picture of potential adversaries.
Since not all databases and host computers are cooperative with
these methods, offensive information warfare tools will be required
to obtain specific pieces of information that are vital for national
are collected, they must be processed and disseminated and then
stored for future access. Enterprise data storage and retrieval
systems that are capable of working with many terrabytes (1,000
gigabytes) of information are already commonplace. Since it is
impossible for humans to comprehend such vast quantities of information
without some assistance, data exploitation tools (filters, fusion,
automatic target recognition, image understanding, etc.) will
be crucial technologies. Finally, the information, once processed,
will be of little use if not disseminated to the right people
in a timely fashion. "Intelligent data" dissemination
and wide bandwidth communications are examples of essential technologies
emerging in this area.
to knowledge about regions and locations where U.S. force may
be applied, it is important to maintain vigilance and up-to-date
knowledge on specific "hot spots" and to have sufficient
flexibility within the system to shift attention rapidly to new
areas. Systems addressing this more time-sensitive set of tasks
would include light, quickly deployable satellites, high altitude
and endurance unmanned aerial vehicles, manned platforms, and
unattended ground sensors.
As a crisis
unfolds and the insertion of U.S. troops or other military action
becomes more probable, information needs and the number of information
consumers both increase dramatically. Information that must be
collected and correlated include targeting, battle damage assessment
(BDA), weather, terrain, infrastructure, tracking of special targets,
logistics, position and status of our own troops, identification
friend or foe (IFF), and status of material. It is vitally important
that sufficient sensor systems work in all weather conditions
and at night to maintain the "operations tempo" required
by Rapid Dominance.
awareness requires three information technologies: collection,
fusion, and dissemination of real-time actionable information
to a shooter. Rapid Dominance requires an unprecedented level
of real-time information collection that will be provided by sensor
systems such as space platforms, UAVs, unattended ground sensors,
and advanced manned reconnaissance platforms. In addition, the
entire infosphere of the adversary will be monitored not only
for classic information such as operational commands but also
to determine the shock effect being created by Rapid Dominance
operations. Collecting data from cooperative sources such as one's
own troops, allies, and friendly non-combatants is also critical.
While Operation Desert Storm showed the value of self-location
sensors such as GPS, the friendly fire casualties demonstrated
that there is still work to be done in terms of giving each commander
and soldier sufficient information to operate effectively. Much
of this information, such as the physiological status of individual
combatants, is not currently collected, and much of what is sensed
is not properly disseminated.
It would be
hard to overstate the importance of information dissemination
within Rapid Dominance. Administering Shock and Awe requires a
spectrum of attacks that the adversary is unable to fathom, but
our own forces must operate effectively, even aggressively, within
an environment that could easily lead to serious information bottlenecks
and overload. Commercial technologies will be key to the U.S.
developing a structure to effectively disseminate information.
Already, commercial communications technologies such as global
broadcast satellites and protocols like those underlying the Internet
have been used as stop gaps by the U.S. military in major deployments.
the right information at the right time will not be sufficient
for operations enabling Rapid Dominance. Information will need
to be fused to create knowledge-based displays. The technologies
that will be important in this area go beyond the data fusion
algorithms currently in place and should leverage heavily off
of technologies in fields such as computer image generation, virtual
reality, and advanced simulation.
In a technology
sense, rapidity includes the speed of operational planning, determining
appropriate action, deployment, and employment all focused toward
minimizing response time. Three factors combine to make military
planning far more difficult today than in the Cold War era. First,
there is great uncertainty early on in the location of a conflict,
who the adversary may be, and with whom one may be allied. Second,
there is normally very little time available for planning, with
the military sometimes having only weeks or days before committing
troops to an unanticipated mission. Third, vastly more information
is available to the planner, which is both a blessing and a curse.
Several technologies that partially define Intelligent Dynamic
Planning will make it easier for the commander to plan Rapid Dominance:
- Model based
planning based upon feedback and new information
automated decision aides (commanders associate)
rehearsal and training
It is impossible
to institutionalize brilliance. However, the standard can be set.
The Dynamic Planning noted above is part of the capability for
this characteristic as are the systems and technologies discussed
Critical to Achieving Brilliance in Rapid Dominance
to be administered with minimum collateral damage, key targets
of value must be neutralized or destroyed, and the enemy must
be made to feel completely helpless and unable to consider a meaningful
response. Furthermore, the enemy's confusion must be complete,
adding to a general impression of impotence. Most importantly,
strategic targets, military forces, leadership and key societal
resources must be located, tracked, and targeted. This will require
substantial sensor, computational, and communication technologies.
Designated targets must be destroyed rapidly and with assurance.
Finally, the status and position of friendly forces must be known
at all times, and the logistics supporting them must be sufficiently
flexible to allow for rapid movement, reconfiguration, and decentralization
that can help in this are discussed below, as divided into the
following subsections: sensors, computational systems, communications
and system integration.
are grouped into four areas: active, passive, imbedded, and processing.
sensors: By far, the most important of the energy-emitting
sensors is radar. Among the best all-weather capabilities of any
type of sensor, the role for and capabilities of radar have steadily
increased since the Second World War. Radar systems are used for
early warning, air defense, air asset management, air traffic
control, naval fleet defense, detection and tracking of moving
ground targets, missile targeting, missile terminal guidance,
terrain data development, and weather prediction. For Rapid Dominance,
radars and other active sensors must operate with low probability
of intercept. Particularly with stealthy systems, this will present
a unique challenge to military systems where one may not expect
a great amount of "spin-on" from the commercial sector.
It is vitally important to be able to sense the enemy under all
conditions and environments. Sensors must penetrate foliage and
walls and detect threats such as underground and underwater mines.
many other important active sensor classes, three of which are
active acoustics, lidar and magnetic anomaly detectors. Broadband
underwater active acoustics could address pressing needs such
as shallow-water anti-submarine warfare and mine detection (both
buried and silt covered). The practical application of lidar is
a relatively recent development enabled by advances in laser,
power management, and data processing technologies. Lidar can
be used for fire control, weapon guidance, foliage penetration
(vegetation is translucent in the near infrared (NIR) regime),
and target imaging/recognition. Lidar detects shape directly and
shape fluctuations such as vibration and motion and has proven
very hard to spoof. Magnetic anomaly detectors will continue to
find application in areas of anti-mine and anti-submarine warfare
and in screening for weapons at security checkpoints and elsewhere.
emissions are of themselves a liability only where they create
a signature of use to an enemy. The ability to emit energy, yet
in ways that are less discernible, should be an attractive avenue
to explore for the future. The coordinated application of many
sensor platforms, some of which may be completely passive, in
conjunction with emitting sensors is a potentially major area
sensors: Among the passive sensor types, the most important
for U.S. forces is forward-looking infrared (FLIR). FLIR technology
has allowed the U.S. to "own the night," as was handily
displayed in Operation Desert Storm. Some of the significant
technology advancements underway in this area include multiple
wavelength sensors, very large focal planes, and the increasing
performance of uncooled sensors. Particularly in the area of uncooled
sensors, commercial developments are underway that promise to
drastically reduce the cost of competent IR sensors.
sensor technologies of note include hyperspectral visible/NIR
collection and processing and inexpensive, scatterable, unattended
ground sensors (acoustic, seismic, "hot spot," etc.).
Hyperspectral imaging allows target searches to be conducted in
the frequency domain, as opposed to the spatial domain as is the
norm today. This provides a powerful new input for automatic target
recognition (ATR) systems, is useful for addressing low observables
(LO), and is especially important for remote imaging assets.
ground sensors allow critical areas to be monitored continually.
For example, the actual area of operations for Scuds in ODS was
relatively small, but it was very difficult for then-current sensing
systems to oversee. Technologies being developed in the area of
microelectromechanical systems, in particular, hold promise for
enabling capable and inexpensive sensor fields.
sensors: Monitoring the position and status of Blue and friendly
forces and assets is of equal importance in tracking the enemy.
GPS presented a tremendous advantage to troops in ODS. This capability
needs to be extended down to the individual soldier, and the status
of all critical material and personnel needs to be tracked.
signal processing: Finally, the signals from modern sensors
are of limited use without proper processing and presentation
to the user. This area will be developed further in the computational
technologies section. Technologies that are historically grouped
with sensor systems include automatic target recognition, imbedded
multisensor fusion and correlation, and displays.
of the integrated circuit (IC), and in particular the microprocessor,
continue to increase unabated. Certainly, physical limits must
be approached at some point, but each looming barrier has so far
been met by technological innovation. Nevertheless, should the
march of IC improvements slow somewhat, the software and networking
technologies that are being developed at an accelerating pace
will permit the vision of Rapid Dominance to become of ever increasing
requires the collection, management, and fast access of enormous
quantities of information. Technologies that will enable this
include computational hardware advances such as increasingly powerful
workstations, reduced-cost image generators, massively parallel
machines, compact displays, reduced-cost memory devices (i.e.,
DRAM, RAID, and optical jukeboxes) client/server-specific database
engines, reconfigurable simulation cells, "wearable"
PCs, advanced human-computer interface (HCI) techniques (i.e.,
voice interfaces and those coming to define "virtual reality"),
and PCMCIA technology for peripherals (i.e., digital comms boards,
miniaturized hard drives, and modems).
will be even more critical for Rapid Dominance. Areas of importance
modeling and simulation
software engineering (CASE) tools
are just now emerging but are being driven at a frenzied pace
in the commercial marketplace. A variety of advanced tools beyond
"hot link" browsing are being introduced daily. Data
browsers, brokers, gatherers, and network repositories are being
released, as demonstrated by products like Harvester and
Netscape's Catalog Server. Platform independent languages
such as JAVA and their associated virtual computational engines
promise the same network flexibility for programs that is now
enjoyed by data.
most important area of technology development for Rapid Dominance
is the development of practical object-oriented architectures
and protocols. Protocols such as CORBA, OLE, ALSP, HLA and DIS1
are changing the face of computing, making it much easier to link
programs and databases, and access and correlate information that
was previously "entombed" within its legacy application.
application area migrating toward an object-oriented approach
is geospatial databases. In the past, geospatial data were stored
as either raster-based or vector information, and significant
processing was required for users to make queries regarding roads,
areas, or objects such as building sites. A new approach, called
a spatial database engine, creates intuitive objects from standard
geospatial databases and uses commercial databases to add attributes
to the objects. This is a very powerful technique that allows
geospatial data, a key element of warfighting, to be managed quickly
and efficiently using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software.
It is particularly useful for distributed databases such as one
would find on a network.
simulation is also benefiting from object-oriented technologies.
Simulations were once stand-alone codes. If one wanted to simulate
a joint battle, one began with an existing model (i.e., land combat)
and then modified it to include other components (i.e., aircraft
and ships). Similarly, if a new technology were to be modeled,
new code normally had to be written, even in cases where good,
validated, stand-alone technology models existed. The obvious
drawbacks to this approach are that it is costly, often produces
inferior simulations for the new additions, and quickly results
in extremely large codes with commensurate large code management
problems. Object-oriented approaches allow models and simulations
to be linked to form a richer environment for examining new technologies
and joint force structures.
simulations with design tools such as computer-aided design (CAD)
programs and physics-based simulations presents a new type of
tool referred to as simulation-based design. Once fully realized,
this capability will allow new technologies to be much more easily
evaluated, introducing a source for greater efficiency into today's
somewhat haphazard acquisition system.
based on object-oriented architectures also promise more flexibility
that will enable scenarios and unexpected situations to be made
as inputs and simulated rapidly, forming the core for a battlefield
visualization system capable of modeling "what if" situations.
Outputs from these simulations could be used for mission rehearsal.
Even today, pilots and special operations forces often "fly
through" crude, three-dimensional renderings of a mission
area to familiarize themselves with information such as surface-to-air
missile (SAM) sites and landmarks.
of computational technologies brings with it potential vulnerabilities
that must be protected against threats. In a world where information
plays a vital role in warfare, information collection and processing
tools will become targets. Defenses against information warfare
must be developed. The threat is real and is growing especially
in the commercial and private sectors. Even today, malicious hackers
devise data-destroying viruses and distribute them through a plethora
of electronic media; numerous sites on the Net are dedicated to
the discussion and development of offensive computer viruses,
with ample tools for even the novice to download and employ. Moreover,
computer crimes cost the world economy billions of dollars annually.
Although information warfare poses serious threats, the realm
of information is where operations underlying Rapid Dominance
most reside, and the enemy will find himself fully engaged should
he choose to fight on our terms. Rapid Dominance is essentially
information warfare on a grand scale in all dimensions of offensive,
defensive and leveraging effective use of available information.
One of the
modern communication devices being fielded within U.S. forces
today is the SINGCARS radio. With a data rate of somewhat less
than 10 kbps, SINGCARS is woefully inadequate for supporting Rapid
Dominance. However, more appropriate technologies are emerging:
- GBS and
other satellite broadcast services
- Wider bandwidth,
digital communication protocols
transfer mode (ATM) switches
comm relay platforms (UAV, Lightsat, Iridium, etc.)
GBS, for example,
figures prominently in the BADD (battlefield awareness and data
dissemination) program that aims at providing close to 30 Mbps
of data broadcast bandwidth. This will be supported by multi-terrabyte
databases, advanced data browsers, and query managers, and will
be linked to the Joint Tactical Internet.
must also be supported by communications technologies. The basic
problem of a battlefield network is that while some nodes may
support very large data pipes, a number of nodes will be operating
at SINGCARS data rates. This led to the BADD notion of one-way
data broadcasting via GBS of large data files (such as UAV video
and overhead imagery) and very low bandwidth data querying back
to the data sources.
will tend to be more multimedia-based, which is particularly important
for Rapid Dominance, where decisions must be made quickly based
upon very large quantities of data, some of which will be collected
and transmitted in real time. Technologies such as digital video
teleconferencing, virtual whiteboards, and even 3D virtual environments
where commanders may participate in collaborative planning sessions
will become important.
communications must be secure and, where feasible, non-observable
to the enemy.
attack of targets in order to induce Shock and Awe may, in some
sense, be considered a subset of controlling the enemy's perception.
It will not always be necessary to destroy numerous targets in
order to induce shock. However, it would be vitally important
to give the appearance that there are no safe havens from attack,
and that any target may be attacked at any time with impunity
and force. Furthermore, as discussed earlier, confusion must be
imposed on the adversary by supplying only information which will
shape the adversary's perceptions and help break his will. Finally,
the enemy must be displaced from selected key positions, for if
he is allowed to occupy those areas that he considers strategically
important, it is difficult to imagine how his shock could be complete.
an enemy's perception of the battlespace includes manipulating
his view of the threat, his own troops and status, and the environment
in which he operates. This will be accomplished by selectively
denying knowledge to the enemy while presenting him with information
that is either misleading or serves our purposes. Sensing and
feedback of an enemy leadership's perception of the situation
will be critical.
of interest here include those that allow systems and entire force
units to modify their signature from being very stealthy to being
completely obvious. An ability to attack enemy information systems
will also be critical, encompassing system technologies from laser-based
counter sensor weapons to embedded computer viruses, commonly
referred to as Trojan Horses. In all cases, the goal will be to
deny the enemy any information that would be useful to him and
to impose a construct of deception and misinformation at all levels
necessary to achieve battlefield awareness already mentioned will
be crucial in allowing a "perception attack" (a form
of information warfare) to be successfully carried out. The need
and requirements for Battlefield Damage Assessment (BDA) will
increase dramatically. It will be necessary to understand not
only whether a target was killed but also how enemy leadership,
troops, and society viewed this destruction.
So far, primarily
information technologies have been discussed. Obviously, there
will continue to be requirements for numerous other types of systems.
Among the more important system technologies critical to achieving
control of the environment include:
platforms with stealth technology
One of the
fundamental rationales for weapons platforms is to move people
and ordinance to within an effective range of the target. Centuries
before smart weapons and robotic systems, this reasoning was understood
intuitively. Since ordinance must still be placed on the target,
weapons platforms such as described below still demand consideration.
bombers and strike aircraft either land or sea platform based
with conventional cruise missiles
with stand off, will contribute strongly to the protection of
manned systems on the modern battlefield and will also be used
extensively for other, high-value unmanned systems. However, protection
of the force is inherent within the concept of Rapid Dominance,
and it will rely upon the control of information and the enemy's
perception of events, stealth being one of the elements enabling
will be required on the future battlefield. Linked with information
technologies, the combination will allow killing any target that
can be identified. The main element Rapid Dominance requires of
weapons systems is the ability to be rapidly focused on objectives
as identified and targeted by commanders using the information
management systems already discussed. Commanders will require
the flexibility to call massive, precision strikes or to attack
individual, high-priority targets with near zero CEP. This implies
a mixture of weapons comprised of systems such as those mentioned
- Zero CEP,
long-range cruise missile ("President's weapon")
- Smart submunitions
- Wide area
and short-range surface attack missiles
are an important area of consideration within Rapid Dominance.
First, selected robotic systems will enable the force by making
it more responsive in concentrating sensors and weapons. Second,
they will make fighting a 24-hour battle feasible even with reduced
manpower within the force structure. Third, robotic systems can
provide force presence even in areas considered too dangerous
for a large manned element. Finally, since the ultimate operational
goal of Rapid Dominance is to create shock, one may consider the
effect that fighting robotic systems may have on the enemy.
the utility of robotic systems within Rapid Dominance, one must
first consider that, by any measure, robotic systems have not
lived up to the optimistic expectations placed on them in the
past. From the overburdening of the Aquilla UAV to the massive
and poorly planned investment in robotics made by General Motors
in the early 1980s, robotics has been an area of unfulfilled promises.
However, the reasons for a string of spectacular failures lie
more with planners' faulty attempts to understand and incorporate
the technology than by egregious shortcomings of the technology
itself. Robots have been seen as replacements for manned systems
rather than extremely complicated and capable machines suitable
for a set of tightly defined tasks. Robotic systems, or taskable
machines as some are beginning to refer to them, hold promise
for the future simply because they represent the intersection
of a myriad of fast-moving technology areas such as information
technologies, communications, microelectronics, micro-electromechanical
systems, simulation, and computer-aided design and manufacturing.
In some sense, taskable machines are the physical embodiment of
information technologies. It may well be that in the future the
joke will be, "Never send a robot to do a man's job."
But even so, there will be ample jobs for taskable machines and
the society that learns to properly design, build, control, and
integrate these systems into their force structure will gain significant
advantage over any potential opponent.
and systems presented in this section are not extraordinary nor
do they comprise a complete list. Indeed, entire fields such as
materials, bioengineering, and microelectronics are left for future
consideration, although they are of obvious and vital importance.
Also not addressed here are the training, education, and organizational
implications required under a regime of Rapid Dominance. Given
the overriding importance of information collection and management,
these will need to be addressed across the defense community as
it is most broadly defined.
combines a doctrine and operational concept that challenges the
current process of how new technologies invented in the commercial
sector are incorporated into defense, and provides an affirmative
methodology for research, development, and system integration.
We must learn to exploit the potential of these technologies even
though, in many cases, this development process in the private
sector is profoundly independent from how we conduct the business
of defense. It is this environment of innovative upheaval that
any useful foundation for strategic and operational thought must
address. Rapid Dominance capitalizes on, and may even require,
this rapid and chaotic development of technology.
that what will distinguish Rapid Dominance from other doctrines
is first that it uses an intellectual construct to drive innovation
and innovation to drive exploiting and integrating technology
into new and perhaps somewhat differently constructed systems.
Second, it is the comprehensive quality of Rapid Dominance in
which strategies, doctrine, technology, systems, operations, training,
organization, and education are dealt with together that may make
the most significant difference. But, as the reader will discern,
specific identification and design of Rapid Dominance systems
is part of the next step.
CORBA (common object request broker architecture), OLE (object
linking and embedding), ALSP (aggregate level simulation protocol),
HLA (high-level architecture), DIS (Distributed Interactive Simulation).
These are all protocols or the architectures defining protocols
that, in part, enable disparate software and/or hardware components
to be linked or otherwise share information and logical elements.
Chapter 5. Future Directions
Table of Contents