13 February 2003
Myers Says Terrorism Remains Primary Focus Of U.S. Military
(Joint Chiefs chairman says detainee data has helped disrupt threat)
The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) says the
anti-terrorism capabilities of U.S. military forces are viewed "as a
standard worldwide" and for that reason the United States is working
with NATO, as well as countries such as the Philippines, Georgia,
Yemen, Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay.
Air Force General Richard Myers told the Senate Armed Services
Committee February 13 that the level of danger from terrorists has
been demonstrated in recent months by attacks in the Middle East,
Africa and Southeast Asia. "The loss of innocent lives serves as a
poignant reminder that terrorists' evil has no moral or territorial
limits," he said.
Myers told committee members that the ongoing war on terrorism remains
the primary focus of the U.S. military. And, he pointed to discoveries
in Afghanistan and elsewhere which confirm that al-Qaeda is seeking
weapons of mass destruction. "This network remains active and
determined to conduct more attacks against the U.S. and our allies,"
The U.S. military has to be ready "to assure our allies" while being
in a position to "dissuade, deter and defeat any adversary," Myers
said while testifying on the Defense Department's Fiscal Year 2004
defense budget submission to Congress. "We possess the forces
necessary to defend the United States homeland and deter forward in
four critical regions," he said. "If required, we will swiftly defeat
the efforts of two adversaries in an overlapping timeframe, while
having the ability to 'win decisively' in one theater." U.S. forces
are also able "to conduct a limited number of lesser contingencies,
maintain a sufficient force generation capability and support a
strategic reserve," he said.
Myers also sought to illustrate the current high level of U.S.
military operational activity, which he said is "as engaged today as
at any time since the Second World War." Besides tracking down
al-Qaeda operatives, they are maintaining No-Fly Zones over Iraq,
enforcing United Nations sanctions in the Persian Gulf, facilitating
reconstruction in Afghanistan, conducting Balkan peacekeeping
operations, supporting South American partners against drug
traffickers and terrorists, preserving stability on the Korean
peninsula and defending the continental United States, he said.
The JCS Chairman said the facility in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, to receive
detainees from Afghanistan and elsewhere is viewed "as a national
asset that supports our work in securing intelligence vital to success
in the war on terrorism and protection of our homeland." Myers said
the operation there supports international intelligence and law
enforcement efforts because its interrogations have produced valuable
intelligence information. "Information gathered from known terrorists
held at Guantanamo Bay," he said, "has helped us to define and disrupt
the global terrorist threat."
Following are excerpts of Myers annual posture statement as prepared
POSTURE STATEMENT OF GENERAL RICHARD E. MYERS USAF
CHAIRMAN OF THE JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF
BEFORE THE 108TH CONGRESS
SENATE ARMED SERVICES COMMITTEE
6 FEBRUARY 2003
It is an honor to report to Congress on the state of the U.S. Armed
Today, our nation's soldiers, sailors, airmen, marines and
coastguardsmen operate in an environment characterized by opportunity
and danger. In the wake of September 11th, U.S. forces are now
deployed to an unprecedented number of locations. Our forces also
operate with a wider array of coalition partners to accomplish more
These operations are required, as the world remains a dangerous place:
In recent months, terrorists have successfully conducted numerous
attacks in the Middle East, Africa and Southeast Asia. The loss of
innocent lives serves as a poignant reminder that terrorists' evil has
no moral or territorial limits. Coalition discoveries in Afghanistan
and other places confirm that al-Qaeda actively seeks weapons of mass
destruction. This network remains active and determined to conduct
more attacks against the U.S. and our allies.
At the same time, other threats to U.S. interests have not abated.
U.S. Armed Forces remain focused on preparing for potential regional
conflict. The proliferation of advanced technology, weapons and
associated expertise has increased the probability that our
adversaries will be capable in the future of fielding significantly
more robust and lethal means to attack the U.S. and our interests. In
December 2002, North Korea announced that it would resume its nuclear
program. Iraq has used chemical and biological weapons in the past and
would likely use them again in the future. Iraq is also aggressively
seeking nuclear weapons. These facts create imperatives for our
nation's armed forces. All the while, U.S. forces remain prepared to
confront the consequences of factional strife in distant lands and
respond to humanitarian disasters.
The President's National Security Strategy provides a new focus for
our nation's armed forces. Based on detailed analysis in the most
recent 2001 Quadrennial Defense Review, the Defense Department adopted
a new defense strategy. Today, we must be ready to: assure our allies,
while we dissuade, deter and defeat any adversary. We possess the
forces necessary to defend the United States homeland and deter
forward in four critical regions. If required, we will swiftly defeat
the efforts of two adversaries in an overlapping timeframe, while
having the ability to "win decisively" in one theater. In addition,
our forces are able to conduct a limited number of lesser
contingencies, maintain a sufficient force generation capability and
support a strategic reserve.
At home, the establishment of the United States Northern Command
(NORTHCOM) has significantly improved the preparedness, responsiveness
and integration between the U.S. military and other federal agencies
defending our homeland. NORTHCOM is an integral part of the rapidly
expanding interagency network supporting homeland defense.
Our nation's entire armed forces remain as engaged today as at any
time since the Second World War. The war on terrorism remains our
primary focus. In concert with other instruments of national power,
our armed forces are tracking down al-Qaeda in Afghanistan and around
the world. Simultaneously, we are operating in the no-fly zones over
Iraq, enforcing UN sanctions in the Arabian Gulf, facilitating
reconstruction in Afghanistan, conducting peacekeeping operations in
the Balkans, supporting our partners in South America against
narcotics trafficking and terrorist cells, preserving stability in the
Korean Peninsula and defending the American homeland. Clearly, the
American people should know that their armed forces are operating at a
As a result of this unprecedented strategic environment, I have
established three priorities as chairman of the joint chiefs of staff:
To win the war on terrorism, to improve joint warfighting and to
transform our nation's military to face the dangers of the 21st
century. These priorities also reflect the priorities of the Secretary
of Defense. Combined with the president's vision, the secretary's
leadership, the support of Congress and the selfless service of our
nation's soldiers, sailors, airmen, marines, coastguardsmen and
civilian workforce -- our nation's armed forces are making progress in
each of these areas.
Al-Qaeda was not created in a single day. It formed over the course of
a decade or more prior to September 11, 2001. It cannot be destroyed
in a day or a year -- it will require a commitment of many years. We
recognize that dangerous and difficult work remains. The following
highlights recent successes and describes what additional actions are
required to protect our nation in our dynamic security environment.
War on Terrorism
For the past 16 months, the U.S. armed forces, in concert with other
federal agencies and our coalition partners, have conducted a
determined campaign to defeat the most potent threat to our way of
life -- global terrorist organizations. Operation Enduring Freedom has
dealt a severe blow to the al-Qaeda transnational network. About 50
key al-Qaeda officials, operatives and logisticians have been killed
or captured. Numerous other operatives have also been removed;
however, al-Qaeda remains a formidable and adaptive peril to our
nation and our partners.
Our successes reflect the careful integration of all instruments of
national power. This war against terrorists requires the inclusive
commitment of the military, financial, economic, law enforcement and
intelligence resources of our nation. On the international level, the
military support and cooperation has been remarkable. Until August of
last year when we determined it was no longer required, NATO provided
airborne early warning aircraft to supplement our E-3 aircraft
patrolling over American cities. NATO allies remain with us in
Afghanistan and patrolling the oceans to interdict terrorists and
their weapons or resources. More than 90 nations share our resolve and
contribute daily to the goal of destroying al-Qaeda. As part of this
effort, numerous bilateral counter-terrorist exercises and exchanges
have been conducted around the world.
At the national level, the Defense Department has made numerous
adjustments. The creation of the Joint Interagency Task Force for
Counter-Terrorism enables the rapid flow of information and analysis
from national resources to the battlefield. Likewise, combatant
commanders established Joint Interagency Coordination Groups to share
information, coordinate actions and streamline operations among
military, intelligence and law enforcement agencies. At U.S. Special
Operations Command, the Counter-Terrorism Campaign Support Group
combines the expertise and resources of the Departments of State,
Treasury and Justice and the CIA with our Special Operations warriors
at the operational level. The Counter-Terrorism Campaign Support Group
fuses intelligence, interagency and military activities in a seamless
Current Overseas Operations
In Afghanistan, our greatest success has been to deny al-Qaeda an
operating haven. Today, Afghanistan has the first true chance for
peace in 23 years. More than 2 million Afghan people have returned
home. We are in the final stages of Phase III (Decisive Operations).
Phase III has severely degraded al-Qaeda's operational capabilities
and their ability to train new members. Their support continues to
decline among the Afghan people. Pockets of Taliban and al-Qaeda
resistance remain within Afghanistan primarily along the Pakistani
border. Nonetheless, overall conditions may permit us to soon shift to
Phase IV (Stability Operations). Once the president decides to move
into Phase IV, we will increase the civil and reconstruction
assistance to the Afghan government. Stability operations will require
a great deal of support from the international community to be
This past year, a key task to promote stability began with training of
the Afghan National Army. The U.S. spearheaded the development of this
force with training, equipment, and force structure requirements. The
Afghan National Army's first five battalions have completed basic
training at the Kabul Military Training Center. More than 1,300 troops
began advanced training as of December. The sixth battalion is
currently in basic training and soon we will begin select officer
training. The French have funded the initial salaries for the recruits
for all six battalions and provided half of the training. Recently
trained forces are integrating with our forces throughout the
countryside. To date, the international community has donated $40
million worth of equipment. Our military forces will be part of an
ongoing commitment to provide equipment and expertise.
The International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan continues
its role mandated by the Bonn agreement and UN Security Council
resolutions. Today, Germany and the Netherlands are preparing to share
leadership responsibilities of the International Security Assistance
Force as they take over in February 2003. They follow the example set
by the United Kingdom and Turkey. Twenty-two nations contribute more
than 4,500 troops to this vital mission.
In January 2002, United States Central Command (CENTCOM) proposed a
concept of operations to disrupt terrorist operations in and around
Yemen. Central to this plan, CENTCOM proposed to strengthen Yemeni
Special Forces capability for counter-terrorism operations and expand
intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance operations. Yemeni
special forces have been trained on counter-terrorism tactics and
procedures and are currently receiving maritime counter-terrorism
training. The working relationship between the United States and
Yemeni government has greatly improved as a result of this training
CENTCOM also established Joint Task Force Horn of Africa (JTF-HOA) as
part of its theater counter-terrorism campaign. In December 2002,
JTF-HOA stood up while embarked on USS Mount Whitney. JTF-HOA provides
CENTCOM a regional counter-terrorism focus in East Africa and Yemen.
It exercises command and control of counter-terrorism operations for
this area. The JTF-HOA staff will remain embarked on USS Mount Whitney
for four to six months until the infrastructure is in place ashore at
Camp Lemonier, Djibouti.
Meanwhile, CENTCOM and allied forces continue Maritime Interception
Operations in the Arabian Gulf to enforce UN sanctions against Iraq.
In 2002, coalition forces diverted over 800 vessels suspected of
carrying illegal Iraqi oil. This reflects a significant increase over
the 115 vessels diverted in 2001.
United States European Command (EUCOM) through its Special Operations
Command, Europe, began the Georgia train and equip program to build a
Georgian capability to deal with the terrorist presence in the Pankisi
Gorge. EUCOM developed a plan to train three staffs, four battalions
and one mechanized/armor company team. EUCOM has completed training
the Georgian Ministry of Defense staff, the Land Forces Command staff
and the first battalion. In December, commander, EUCOM directed Marine
Forces Europe to assume the Georgia train and equip program mission,
which will resume training in February. Six other allies contributed
nearly $2 million in materiel reflecting the international nature of
In July, the president approved Expanded Maritime Interception
Operations to interdict terrorists and their resources. With this
order, the president authorized commanders to stop, board and search
merchant ships identified to be transporting terrorists and/or
terrorist-related materiel. Expanded Maritime Interception Operations
are focused on EUCOM and CENTCOM's Area of Responsibilities (AORs)
while PACOM and the other combatant commanders are developing Expanded
Maritime Interception Operations plans. Eleven nations provide forces
for Maritime Interception Operations within the CENTCOM AOR. German
and Spanish senior officers command parts of these operations --
reflecting the coalition commitment to the war on terrorism. So far,
EUCOM's Maritime Interception Operations have stopped 14 ships. NATO
maritime and air forces support the Maritime Interception Operations
within EUCOM's AOR.
In Europe, we support NATO's plan to transition stabilization forces
in Bosnia-Herzegovina to a minimal presence and Kosovo forces to a
reduced presence by the end of 2004. In the spring of 2003, the NATO
military committee will review the proposed force structure reductions
and restructuring for Bosnia and Kosovo. Our presence in the Balkans
has not only promoted peace in the region, it has also enhanced our
ability to conduct counter-terrorism operations.
During this past year in support of Operation Enduring Freedom --
Philippines, U.S. Pacific Command (PACOM) has provided the armed
forces of the Philippines military advice and assistance in targeting
Abu Sayyaf Group terrorist activities in the Philippines. U.S. forces
could be available to provide follow-on advice and assistance if
requested by the government of Philippines, and approved by the
president and the secretary of Defense. In concert with these efforts
supporting Operation Enduring Freedom, Congress has approved the
Security Assistance Funding necessary to provide counter-terrorism
training for the armed forces of the Philippines. Training will begin
in the February/March timeframe.
United States Southern Command (SOUTHCOM) continues to support
counter-narcotics trafficking and counter-terrorism efforts in South
America. In accordance with new presidential policy and expanded
legislative authority, we are assisting the Colombian military in its
fight against designated terrorist organizations by providing advice,
training and equipment. Our current operations are built on
preexisting counter-narcotics missions. U.S. troops are currently
training the Colombian military to protect critical infrastructures,
such as the Cano Limon Pipeline. In addition personnel will deploy in
FY03 to serve as operations and intelligence planning assistance teams
at selected units to assist the Colombian military in its fight
against terrorism. This assistance will continue over the next several
years. The U.S. military presence in Colombia is limited to the troop
caps established by Congress, in terms of uniformed and contract
The tri-border area of Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay is a focal point
of increased drug and arms trafficking, money laundering, document
fraud and Islamic terrorist-supported activities. U.S. and Brazilian
officials estimate that between $10-12 billion USD/year flows through
the tri-border area, some of which is diverted to known terrorist
groups such as Hizballah and Hamas.
Commander, SOUTHCOM continues detainee operations (detention and
intelligence collection missions) at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. While the
detainees are not entitled to the status of enemy prisoners of war,
the president and the secretary of Defense have directed that the U.S.
armed forces treat them humanely and to the extent appropriate and
consistent with military necessity, consistent with the principles of
the Geneva Conventions. SOUTHCOM has constructed an additional 190
medium security units to augment the 816 holding units and fortified
billeting structures for U.S. military personnel assigned. Almost
2,000 U.S. military personnel are deployed to Guantanamo Bay in
support of detainee operations. The president issued an order on
November 13, 2001, authorizing use of military commissions to
prosecute individuals subject to the order for offenses against the
laws of war and other applicable laws. To date, no one has been made
specifically subject to the order, and therefore, no one has been
prosecuted by military commission. The Secretary of Defense appointed
the secretary of the Army to lead war crimes investigations. A few of
those detained at Guantanamo determined to be of no intelligence or
law enforcement value or threat to the United States or its interests,
have been released and returned to their countries of origin.
We view Guantanamo Bay as a national asset that supports our work in
securing intelligence vital to success in the war on terrorism and
protection of our homeland. It also supports interagency and
international intelligence and law enforcement efforts. Interrogations
at Guantanamo Bay have resulted in intelligence of high value.
Information gathered from known terrorists held at Guantanamo Bay has
helped us to define and disrupt the global terrorist threat.
Unified Command Plan 2002
On 1 October 2002 we implemented the 2002 Unified Command Plan, as
directed by the president. The 2002 Unified Command Plan, and its
subsequent Change 1, created United States Northern Command
(NORTHCOM), disestablished United States Space Command (SPACECOM) and
combined SPACECOM's missions and forces with United States Strategic
Command (STRATCOM), thereby establishing a "new" STRATCOM.
United States Northern Command and Homeland Security
NORTHCOM's mission is to deter, prevent and defeat threats and
aggression aimed at the United States and its territories. When
directed, NORTHCOM provides military assistance to civil authorities,
including consequence management. Commander, NORTHCOM is dual-hatted
as Commander, North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD). NORAD
has control of the Air Defense of CONUS (Continental United States).
Land and maritime operations are controlled by NORTHCOM.
NORTHCOM stood up its combatant command staff and accepted Homeland
Defense missions and tasks from United States Joint Forces Command
(JFCOM) and other combatant commands. It has also developed a plan to
reach its full operational capability. Currently, NORTHCOM is engaged
with federal and state agencies, the National Guard and NORAD to plan
and exercise a variety of homeland defense and civil support tasks.
Simultaneously, NORTHCOM is cultivating closer relationships with our
North American neighbors.
As part of this effort, NORTHCOM's Standing Joint Task Force Civil
Support provides command and control for DOD forces supporting the
lead federal agency managing the consequences of chemical, biological,
radiological, nuclear or high-yield explosive incidents in addition to
natural disasters. As such, Joint Task Force Civil Support provides a
sustained planning staff that has formed a habitual relationship with
key federal and state agencies plus communities nationwide.
NORAD's responsibilities for air and ground early warning systems and
alert fighter support in defense of CONUS, Canada and Alaska remain
unchanged. In addition, NORAD is identifying the infrastructure needed
for the defense of the national capital region.
On December 9, 2002, the United States and Canada agreed to create a
new binational land, maritime, and civil support military planning
group at NORAD to help examine potential responses to threats and
attacks on the United States or Canada. This initiative will advance
our ability to defend our nation.
Last year Operation Noble Eagle flew over 14,000 sorties even while
our current operations overseas required key resources. These sorties
represent NORAD's contributions to Operation Noble Eagle and defense
of the American Homeland.
United States Strategic Command
United States Strategic Command's (STRATCOM) mission is to establish
and provide full-spectrum global strike, coordinate space and
information operations capabilities to meet both deterrent and
decisive national security objectives. STRATCOM retains its nuclear
triad of submarine, bomber and missile forces.
On 10 January 2003, the president signed Change 2 to the Unified
Command Plan. This latest changed assigned four emergent missions to
STRATCOM and reflects the U.S. military's increased emphasis on a
global view. These new missions include missile defense, global
strike, DOD information operations and global command, control,
communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and
reconnaissance. Missile defense is an inherently multi-command and
multi-regional task. STRATCOM will serve as the primary advocate in
the development of missile defense operational architecture. With its
global strike responsibilities, the command will provide a core cadre
to plan and execute nuclear, conventional and information operations
anywhere in the world. STRATCOM serves as the DOD advocate for
integrating the desired military effects of information operations.
These initiatives represent a major step in transforming our military
and in implementing the new strategic triad envisioned in the 2001
Nuclear Posture Review.
STRATCOM will also continue the former U.S. Space Command's legacy of
providing space support for our joint team. The global positioning
system offers an excellent example of how space systems enhance our
joint warfighting team. The global positioning system's worldwide
position, navigation and timing information give U.S. forces an
all-weather, precision engagement capability. As an example of one
application, the U.S. Army fielded a blue force tracking system a
space-based tool that gives commanders awareness of their units'
U.S. military space superiority requires continued advances in space
control and access along with the cooperation of our allies. The
European Union, for example, is developing Galileo, a civil satellite
navigation system that risks our enhancement to military GPS (Global
Positioning System). As currently designed, the Galileo signal will
operate in the same bandwidth as our GPS system's civil and military
signals. When Galileo begins operating, its signals will directly
overlay the spectrum associated with our new GPS military code.
Continued negotiations to resolve this political issue with the
European Union is essential to ensuring our joint team maintains the
advantages, of GPS in combat....
Antiterrorism/force protection remains a top priority for all
commanders. Our adversaries -- unable to confront or compete with the
United States militarily have and will continue to use terrorist acts
to attack U.S. citizens, property, and interests -- to include
military bases and personnel. In the FY03 budget, the
antiterrorism/force protection portion of the combating terrorism
budget totaled $9.3 billion. The terrorist threat environment has
forced us to maintain a higher worldwide force protection condition
for longer periods of time. In the short term, this task is being met
with an increase in manpower.
For example, EUCOM is currently at force protection condition Bravo.
In the short-term, additional troops are required to guard U.S.
military bases throughout EUCOM's theater. In the long-term, SECDEF
(Secretary of Defense) directed us to pursue new technologies that
will reduce the manpower footprint while improving force protection,
as well as seeking host nation support for the force protection
The Combating Terrorism Readiness Initiative Fund helped provide
immediate Antiterrorism/Force Protection off-the-shelf technology to
combatant commanders to satisfy emergent requirements that could not
wait for the normal budget process or long-term technical solutions.
Last year's funded systems included explosive detection systems that
enhanced access control, intrusion detection systems that provided
broader perimeter security while reducing manpower requirements and
chemical/biological (chem/bio) detection systems to improve
installation defense capabilities. The department authorized $47
million this past year for the Combating Terrorism Readiness
Initiative Fund, nearly twice the FY00 expenditure.
To support the Combatant Commanders' Antiterrorism/Force Protection
efforts, the joint staff integrated vulnerability assessment teams
will visit 95 military installations worldwide this year. Joint staff
integrated vulnerability assessment teams assess physical security
measures, infrastructure support and structural vulnerabilities,
intelligence collection and dissemination capabilities and the
installation's ability to respond to terrorist incidents. Over 500,000
personnel received "General Antiterrorism Awareness" training last
year. This on-line training is now also available to DOD family
The Defense Department also finalized prescriptive antiterrorism
engineering and construction standards to improve survivability of our
personnel from the effects of an explosive device. In large part
because the Pentagon renovation project followed design strategies
based on these new antiterrorism construction standards, the damage
and loss of life from the Pentagon attack was significantly reduced.
U.S. forces' antiterrorism capabilities are seen as a standard
worldwide. NATO sought U.S. military expertise to improve
antiterrorism training for all NATO forces. As a result, last summer,
NATO approved policy guidance that clarified antiterrorism
responsibilities 'for Non-Article 5 operations, delineated minimum
unit antiterrorism plan requirements and increased emphasis on weapons
of mass destruction defense and consequence management planning. The
United States will assist NATO to implement this important guidance.
We are working hard to expand and improve our capabilities to protect
our personnel against chem/bio agents. DOD initiated vaccinating
select segments of the force against anthrax and smallpox. Our medical
treatment capabilities must expand to include improved treatment
against weapons of mass destruction while providing additional medical
countermeasures, surveillance systems and response teams.
We improved overall joint force readiness by our recent procurement of
improved chem/bio defensive protective clothing, masks and detection
systems. This equipment is significantly more reliable, better at
agent detection and further enhances our forces' overall capability to
operate in the chem/bio environment.
In the area of installation protection, we have improved detection
systems plus consequence management assessment and training
capabilities at 23 of our overseas bases. In addition, we performed a
thorough assessment of our detection and first responder capabilities
at nine key CONUS installations. These lessons learned will guide
development of a comprehensive plan to improve chem/bio defense at
more than 200 bases over the next six years. Although we improved our
chem/bio capabilities, fighting a war in this environment remains a
serious challenge. Therefore, we must continue to fund research,
development and acquisition projects that ensure our forces can
operate successfully in this adverse environment.
Readiness for Future Operations
The readiness of our general-purpose forces, whether forward deployed,
operating in support of contingency operations or in homeland defense,
continues to be solid. U.S. forces are well trained and in general,
possess the personnel, equipment and resources needed to accomplish
the military objectives outlined in the defense strategy....
Materiel readiness has improved substantially in part, due to the
tremendous support of Congress. One example is munitions, where recent
supplemental measures have allowed combatant commanders to increase
stockpiles of key all-weather and advanced precision-guided munitions.
These munitions enable the joint team to place at risk a wide array of
enemy targets. Funding increases this past year dramatically increased
precision-guided munitions production rates, and selected production
rates should be near maximum capacity by August 2003. Continued
congressional support is critical to build munitions and materiel
inventories to levels that meet warfighting requirements....
The present posture of the military intelligence forces, for the
long-term war on terrorism is improving, but many challenges remain.
This global war clearly demonstrates the need for persistent
long-loiter intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance platforms.
Military intelligence also requires low observable unmanned aerial
vehicle systems, close-access sensors and a greater emphasis on human
intelligence collection. In addition, all intelligence communities
must provide an information architecture that provides a "push and
pull" capability for the joint warfighter, law enforcement and
counterintelligence personnel. We must shift, our attitudes away from
the mindset of a "need to know" to one of "need to share."
Our strategic mobility triad (airlift, sealift, and prepositioned
materiel) provides us the capability to swiftly move forces around the
world. The United States remains the only nation who can routinely
move units and materiel globally with confidence and speed. While our
airlift and air refueling assets performed magnificently in support of
the war on terrorism, this high operational demand is accelerating the
aging of C-5 and tanker aircraft and created unanticipated wear and
tear on our C-17 fleet. As a result, strategic airlift remains one of
our top priorities. The C-17 multi-year procurement plus the C-5
Re-engining and Reliability Enhancement Programs are major steps to
meet the minimum wartime airlift capacity of 54.5 million ton
miles/day. The follow-on Multi-Year Procurement with Boeing for 60+
C-17s will bring the total C-17 fleet to 180 aircraft in 2007. As a
corollary priority, replacing the 40-year-old KC-135 air refueling
fleet is an essential joint warfighting requirement.
With congressional support, our strategic sealift achieved the
Mobility Requirements Study-05 goals for surge and prepositioned fleet
sealift requirements. The maintenance of our organic sealift fleet
remains a high priority to ensure we can deploy sufficient force to
support routine and contingency operations. To support greater levels
of mobilization, DOD can also access additional U.S. commercial
shipping through the Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement. This
agreement is critical to ensure that adequate sealift capacity (and
associated mariners) is available to support DOD requirements during
wartime. We are working closely with the Department of Transportation
to ensure these requirements can be met.
Our prepositioned materiel reduced response time in key theaters. This
critical readiness program enables our success in the war on terrorism
and other contingency operations.
For intra-theater mobility, the department recognizes the joint
venture, high-speed vessel as a promising delivery platform. This
vessel employs off-the-shelf technology and can operate in austere
locations where mature seaports do not exist. Combatant commanders
praise this vessel for rapidly and efficiently moving personnel and
equipment. Future operations will also rely on strong enroute
infrastructures that support strategic mobility requirements. The
dynamic nature of the war on terrorism and other potential
contingencies dictates that we be prepared to establish new enroute
bases to support deployments to austere locations. In addition, we
must fully fund the existing enroute infrastructure to sustain its
capability. Future success in operations depends upon effective
training today and tomorrow....
The current pace of operations and future potential operations
continues to require the Services and Combatant Commanders to
carefully manage assets and units that are in high demand, but in
small numbers. The demand for critical capabilities (such as manned
and unmanned intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance assets,
special operations forces, intelligence analysts and linguists and
command and control assets) increased significantly as a result of
multiple contingencies. We will continue to prioritize the tasks given
these critical units to preserve our surge capability for future
Improving Joint Warfighting Capabilities
The U.S. Armed Forces' ability to conduct joint warfare is better
today than anytime in our history, due in part to the tremendous
support of Congress. Nonetheless, many challenges remain. Our joint
team is comprised of the individual warfighting capabilities of the
services. To improve our joint warfighting capability, we must
maximize the capabilities and effects of the separate units and
weapons systems to accomplish the mission at hand without regard to
the color of the uniforms of those who employ them. This challenge
demands that we integrate service core competencies together in such a
way that makes the whole greater than the sum of its parts. Our
operational architectures must be inclusive and not exclusive in terms
of capabilities and desired effects. We must integrate -- not
deconflict -- our operations....
Our experiences in Afghanistan illustrated how important timely and
responsive command and control was to control sea, land and air forces
in areas with primitive or nonexistent communications infrastructures.
To meet this challenge in the Arabian Gulf AOR, CENTCOM deployed a
prototype battle management command and control system to support its
INTERNAL LOOK exercise in Qatar and for potential future operations.
DOD will leverage the lessons learned from this prototype to help
guide the development of future battle management command and control
We must also develop command and control systems that can rapidly
deploy anywhere in the world, to support joint and coalition forces
with "plug and play" ease and that are also scalable to respond to
changing circumstances. Programs such as the Joint Tactical Radio
System, Mobile User Objective System and the Joint Command and Control
capability (the follow-on to Global Command and Control System) are
systems that were truly "born joint." We also must ensure that we have
the necessary military satellite communications systems that can
provide the high bandwidth required to support our forces in austere
environments such as Afghanistan.
The role of command, control, communications, computers, intelligence,
surveillance and reconnaissance underscores the importance of managing
and developing the radio frequency spectrum. Highly mobile, widely
dispersed forces require significant radio frequency spectrum to
operate effectively and efficiently. This military requirement is
increasing at the same time that the private sector's demand for
spectrum is growing. While it is important to provide additional
spectrum to meet growing industry requirements, we must ensure the
availability of spectrum to provide future military requirements.
In today's dynamic strategic environment, events in one area may
quickly affect events in another. This reality requires a more
responsive planning process to capitalize on the improved C4 (Command,
Control, Communications, & Computer) networks and where deliberate-
and crisis-action planning complement each other. Improvements in war
planning are required to close the time gap between deliberate- and
crisis-action planning. These initiatives range from changing doctrine
to developing new automated planning tools for Time-Phased Force
Deployment Data (TPFDD) development. The joint staff, in collaboration
with the combatant commanders' staff, is developing a single shared
planning process for deliberate and crisis planning. This initiative
will develop tools and processes to reduce the deliberate planning
cycle, facilitate the transition to crisis planning and exploit new
technology to respond to evolving world affairs. The end results will
be greatly improved flexibility for the president and the secretary of
Improving joint warfighting requires more than technical solutions. My
exercise program supports the combatant commanders' ability to sharpen
our soldier, sailor, airmen, marines and coastguardsmen's warfighting
edge. It enables operational commanders to better train their battle
staffs and forces in joint and combined operations while evaluating
their war plans. It also allows DOD to enhance and evaluate
interoperability among the services. Exercises focusing on strategic,
national and theater-level joint tasks consistently challenge leaders
throughout DOD, interagency and allies with timely and relevant
scenarios -- including terrorism, cyber attack, continuity of
government and operations. Routinely, these exercises provide access
to critical bases of operation around the world as venues for
practicing impending joint/combined operations. These exercises also
allow the opportunity to enhance the capabilities of the military
forces of allied nations and ensure their continued support in the war
on terrorism. The U.S. military is advancing and transforming at a
rate that greatly outpaces our allies. We must work hard to help them
close that gap....
TRANSFORMATION OF THE U.S. ARMED FORCES
As the U.S. military meets the challenges of the 21st century, we must
transform how we organize, support and fight as joint warfighters.
Transforming the joint force requires embracing intellectual,
cultural, as well as technological, change. We are in the process of
revising our joint vision. This new vision will provide a broad
description of what our armed forces must and can become. From our
joint vision and the defense strategy, we are crafting a joint
operations concept. It will link the tasks given our armed forces to
the joint vision, joint operating concepts and joint warfighter
architectures. These joint concepts and architectures will provide
further guidance to each service.
In its broadest sense, the joint operations concept will describe how
the joint force will operate, while helping transform the U.S. armed
forces to a capabilities-based force....
While we are expending considerable effort to make sure we procure
systems that are interoperable across the services, we must continue
placing emphasis on systems that allow interoperability with our
allies. A way to do this is to allow allies to participate in many of
our procurement projects. This will have the dual advantage of helping
to lower project cost to the American taxpayer and increasing
interoperability with those allied forces that will accompany us into
the breach. The joint strike fighter reflects one success story of
allied and U.S. combined procurement. The joint strike fighter set the
standard for how we should approach new procurements, welcoming key
allied participation in the development and production of future
systems. Such an acquisition strategy will increase interoperability,
help allied transformation and reduce direct U.S. development costs.
Transforming military forces to meet a dynamic 21st century security
environment is not a unique American task. At the Prague summit, NATO
leaders agreed to establish an allied command for transformation in
Norfolk, Virginia. The proposed NATO command will work with JFCOM.
This close and cooperative relationship will allow the United States
and our NATO allies to keep abreast of advances in contemporary
Our efforts to improve our allies' warfighting capabilities reach far
beyond NATO. The combatant commanders and I share the secretary of
Defense's vision of a long-term plan to balance burden sharing,
leverage U.S. technological superiority and use a proactive theater
security cooperation strategy to transform allied forces into lethal,
offensive-minded, combined-arms forces. This initiative is as much
about doctrine, warfighting mindset and organizational structure as it
is about platforms and weapon systems. Theater security cooperation
will allow the U.S. to modify force structure and posture to optimize
the mobility, lethality and interoperability of our forward forces.
With Congress' support, this past year we have made progress in the
war on terrorism, specifically, and overall capabilities. Al-Qaeda and
their global network were not created in a single day, but over a
decade. At the same time, the nation's armed forces must be prepared
for other threats to our interests. Confronting them will require
determined and disciplined use of all instruments of American power.
(Distributed by the Office of International Information Programs, U.S.
Department of State. Web site: http://usinfo.state.gov)