teams with Purdue University to add the human factor to
war game simulations
newly developed modeling software prototype may allow joint
to add realism to real world scenarios by accurately replicating
a population's reactions to the various non-combat aspects of global combat
Army Sgt. Jon Cupp
USJFCOM Public Affairs
VA -- Feb. 6, 2004) - How far would U.S. Joint Forces Command
go to evaluate a computer simulation that models human behavior
and emulates demographic information of a population?
of USJFCOM's Joint Experimentation
(J9) and the Joint
Training Directorates (J7) answered that question recently
as they traveled to West Lafayette, Ind. to work with researchers,
engineers and developers from a major university to evaluate
a proof of concept: a Web-based collaborative computer simulation
which mimics human behavior and the responses of the population,
during various real-world scenarios, in real time.
than 30 USJFCOM participants, along with representatives
from Purdue University's Krannert School of Management evaluated
military applications using a prototype of the Synthetic
Environments for Analysis and Simulation (SEAS) at the Purdue
Technology Park from Jan. 27-28 during Breaking Point 2004,
an environment-shaping war game.
the exercise, and to demonstrate the capability war game
organizers distributed the simulation and the after action
review back to J9 participants in Suffolk.
during the event also included representatives from major
U.S. corporations such as IBM and several retired senior
been looking very hard for a simulation that will address
the non-kinetic aspects of combat, things like the diplomatic,
economic, political, infrastructure and social issues,” said
Rae Dehncke, the SEAS project officer at J9 and a member
of the staff at the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA).
asked (Purdue) to adapt their current simulation to a military
situation,” added Dehncke. “What makes SEAS unique
is that it is an agent-based simulation in which artificial
agents with-in the simulation actually represent the population
of a city, or a country. or the human players can represent
members of an agency, such as the Department of Defense,
the media, terrorists, governments of a city, or country
as well as, in this case, representatives of world health
organizations. Human actors actually interact with each other
and with the simulation and the artificial agents in the
simulation are responding to their inputs.”
in the exercise played on different color-coded teams with
the blue team representing the U.S. Department of Defense,
the U.S. State Department, and the World Health Organization.
were two green teams with one representing another country's
president and the ministries of transportation, internal
affairs and health, while the second green team represented
that country's capital city's government to include the mayor
and the departments of transportation, internal affairs and
a red team portrayed the role of terrorists operating in
the green team's territory.
to Dehncke, something new this war game brought to the experimental
venue involved yet another set of teams influencing the scenario.
The yellow team represented two separate media teams, one
representing the pro-blue media while the other team represented
pro-red journalists. “It's very important to play the
impact of these media organizations and theydefinitely influenced
the human players and the artificial agents within the simulation,” said
of the players in the scenario had input devices that interacted
with the simulation, and allowed interaction with other players
using email or talking directly to each other just as they
would in the real world.
of the ways in which players influenced the scenario included
the blue-team's military ability to close and open air spaces
and their ability to do a show of force or the red-team's
terrorist activities of delivering weapons of mass destruction
or spreading rumors just to name a few.
players had the ability to influence the game, and each player
had a finite amount of resources with which to work and he
had to take from one to give to another. According to Dehncke,
a key part of this simulation allowed players to actually
see quickly the results of actions and how it affects the
population, a helpful training aid in practicing how to make
the game, output devices allowed role players to see how
well they are doing in influencing the population.
show the measures of output like little thermometers,” said
Dehncke. “For instance, you will be able to see if
the public mood is good or bad, and if the people's satisfaction
with the government is high or low. You can tell how the
people are reacting, whether they're ready for a revolution
or if they're going to vote for the government again.”
to Dehncke, SEAS technology resulted from ten years of research
conducted at Purdue's Krannert School of Management. The
Department of Defense and several Fortune 500 companies has
provided funding for the program. In addition, the National
Science Foundation, the 21st Century Fund of the state of
Indiana, the Office of Naval Research and companies such
as Intel supported SEAS through funding of over $7 million.
SEAS was built by the Krannert School to help Fortune 500
companies with strategic planning. Most recently, it has
been incorporated into the U.S. Army's recruiting efforts
by modeling the population of the U.S. that is eligible for
military service, thus allowing recruiting commanders to
strategize ways to improve recruiting potential soldiers.
we would like to do in the future is run this exercise from
Purdue on their hardware and distribute it to all the player
sites.” said Dehncke. “We could have the real
inter-agency organizations involved, like the FBI, the Treasury
Department and the State Department, playing from their desks
at their home offices around the country.
is about the non-combat aspects of war so it is very important
that all the agencies normally involved in supporting the
war fighters have the ability to participate and make their
inputs into the overall decision-making process. SEAS moves
us from the current situation where everyone comes together
and sits around a table discussing what they would do, to
a situation where they actually play in the simulation and
their actions have consequences.”
of the purposes of the exercise was to figure out how to
adapt SEAS for use within USJFCOM.
only question now is what does it cost, how hard is it to
set up, and how hard is it to create the scenarios,” said
Dehncke. “These are some of the things that we're looking
at right now as we look ahead to the potential uses of SEAS.”
to Tony Cerri, the senior government official from JFCOM
who attended the event at Purdue, USJFCOM is currently researching
the possible use of the SEAS simulation in combination with
current technologies at J9 such as the Scalable Parallel
Processor (SPP), a super computer that is currently being
used to support an experiment on joint
urban operations and which could be used to host the
SEAS simulation for large scale events.
Cerri said J9 will examine if the Collaborative Information
Environment (CIE), and the Distributed
Continuous Experimentation Environment (DCEE) could work