FBI Intelligence Capabilities
Director Mueller Presents the Bureau's Vision for Creating an Intelligence
within the FBI
It's a vital
national issue: in a post 9/11 world, what's the best way
to structure our country's domestic intelligence operations to help
prevent terrorist attacks on our homeland?
On June 3,
in testimony before
the House Appropriations Committee, Director Mueller presented
the FBI's vision in concrete detail, from the broad concepts
to the specific initiatives that will make them work.
The main features
of the plan, which build on our transformation
of our intelligence and counterterrorism capabilities over
the past two and a half years:
a new Directorate of Intelligence in the FBI with "broad and
clear authority over intelligence-related functions."
budget decision-making so that intelligence resources are more easily
coordinated and shared across Bureau programs and more quickly adapted
to fast-moving global threats.
We urge you
to spend some time studying the proposal and its new initiatives,
including ways to strengthen everything from information-sharing to
strategic analysis ... from field operations to language translation
We also call
your attention to the five key principles the Director says
must guide any intelligence reform, namely:
removing intelligence functions from the FBI would be "counterproductive" because
intelligence is ingrained in every aspect of the Bureau;
intelligence and law enforcement tools in one organization enables
faster, more coordinated, and more multi-faceted prevention operations;
in-depth understanding of the threats drives what intelligence we
need to collect and ultimately our overall investigative mission,
making it imperative to integrate analysis, collection, and related
centrally managed program is necessary to synthesize intelligence
from across the Bureau's many national security and criminal responsibilities
and from across the more than 500 FBI offices worldwide;
off information and operations into separate compartments – what's
called "stove-piping" – limits collaboration both
inside and outside the FBI.
line: "With these guiding principles in mind, we support
the creation of a strong intelligence service within the FBI that leverages
our formidable collection capabilities and fully integrates our law
enforcement and Intelligence Community partners," the Director
of Robert S. Mueller, III
Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation
Before the House Appropriations Committee
Subcommittee on the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State,
the Judiciary, and Related Agencies
June 3, 2004
Good afternoon Mr. Chairman, Congressman Serrano, and members of the Subcommittee.
Thank you for this opportunity to discuss the FBI’s vision to enhance
our enterprise-wide intelligence capabilities. As I described in my testimony
in March, we have spent the past two and a half years transforming the
FBI and realigning our resources to combat international terrorism and
other evolving national security threats, including criminal threats. We
are now focusing our reform efforts on strengthening our intelligence program
and improving interagency coordination.
While we, and many
of our critics, are generally satisfied with our progress in building
an enterprise-wide intelligence capability, a healthy skepticism persists
about the FBI’s ability to fully execute its plans. Some, including
members of this subcommittee, have proposed alternatives to the Bureau’s
current intelligence structure. As we have progressed with implementation
of our Intelligence Program, we too have seen the need to strengthen
our intelligence organizational structure.
Mr. Chairman, at your
request, the National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA) undertook
a review of the FBI’s intelligence and counterterrorism programs.
As a result of its review, NAPA, in conjunction with the General Accounting
Office (GAO) and the Congressional Research Service (CRS), developed
several proposals to expedite and enhance the FBI’s counterterrorism
reforms and to strengthen our domestic intelligence function. We have
worked closely with NAPA, GAO and CRS on these proposals and would like
to commend them -- and you -- for these efforts.
As you know, Mr. Chairman,
the FBI supports the concept of an intelligence service within the FBI.
In my view, this concept consists of two basic components: (1) creation
of a new Directorate of Intelligence, and (2) more effective control
and use of resources. Before discussing these two issues, I would like
to take a few moments to discuss several principles that I believe must
guide any reform effort if we are to successfully address the most critical
threats facing our nation.
First, any reform
proposal must recognize that intelligence is fundamental to successful
FBI operations. Intelligence functions are woven throughout the fabric
of the Bureau, and any changes to this integrated approach would be counterproductive.
Intelligence is embedded in every aspect of the FBI workforce and organization
-- the Agents, the analysts, the Laboratory, the Cyber Division, the
Investigative Technologies Division, and even training. The FBI can take
the devices and techniques of our adversaries, analyze them, and put
together information of great use to our partners in state and local
law enforcement and the Intelligence Community.
Second, we must continue
to integrate intelligence and law enforcement operations. We must be
able to employ both intelligence and criminal tools as part of an integrated
counterterrorism strategy that gives us the flexibility to move seamlessly
from intelligence gathering to disruption at a moment’s notice.
Third, analysis should
be fully integrated into intelligence collection and other operations
so that intelligence can drive the investigative mission.
Fourth, we should
have centralized management with distributed execution. Central management
should support national collection efforts, information sharing, and
dedicated strategic analysis that pulls intelligence from all FBI offices
and across programs, and ultimately drives planning and the allocation
And fifth, we should
limit stove-piping of intelligence collection and analysis and encourage
synergy in our own operations and in collaboration with our partners.
With these guiding
principles in mind, we support the creation of a strong intelligence
service within the FBI that leverages our formidable collection capabilities
and fully integrates our law enforcement and Intelligence Community partners.
The first step toward
our “service within a service” is to build upon the Office
of Intelligence to create a Directorate of Intelligence with broad and
clear authority over intelligence-related functions. The authority of
the Executive Assistant Director for Intelligence (EAD-I), who now provides
policy and oversight, would be extended to cover all intelligence- related
budgeting and resources.
It might be helpful
for me to explain the proposed organization in terms of how it will support
each critical intelligence-related function. I will begin with management
of our intelligence requirements process – the ongoing cycle of
identifying intelligence gaps and directing collection to fill those
of Intelligence Requirements and Collection
We currently have
an Intelligence Requirements and Collection Unit that provides independent
and centralized management of the FBI’s intelligence requirements
and collection functions. The efforts of this Unit would be strengthened
by: (1) working with target experts to develop collection strategies
to fill gaps in our knowledge; (2) developing, implementing and overseeing
FBI standards for the validation of assets and sources; and (3) making
intelligence from human sources available across program lines.
The EAD-I has been
given responsibility for information sharing policy, and we expect demands
in this area to increase. In particular, we need to ensure the FBI’s
full participation in the Justice Intelligence Coordinating Council,
the DOJ’s Law Enforcement Sharing Initiative, the DCI Advisory
Group, and other entities.
Our contingent at
TTIC would be part of the Directorate and would be fully incorporated
into our information sharing efforts.
To enhance our support
of outside customers in state and local law enforcement, the Directorate
would evaluate customer satisfaction, tailor the FBI’s support
to each major customer, and ensure that our partners are receiving the
information they need from the FBI.
To boost our strategic
analysis efforts, the new Directorate would be responsible for the organization
and implementation of strategic intelligence campaigns to support major
cases, crisis response, and significant threats. The Directorate would
work with operational counterparts to design, organize, implement, and
manage an FBI intelligence system support structure.
The proposal also
envisions promoting enterprise-wide strategic analysis through the development
of analytic products that cross traditional programmatic lines and identify
intelligence gaps to facilitate the development of collection and dissemination
requirements. The unit will help us forecast future threats, and drive
the allocation of resources and the development of investigative and
intelligence strategies to support the FBI’s mission. This is analogous
to the DCI’s National Intelligence Council (NIC) that ensures a
full-time focus on strategic issues.
Production and Use
To support intelligence
production and use, we would build upon existing units to improve the
FBI’s 24-hour intelligence production capability, FBI daily reports,
and the FBI’s Presidential Intelligence Assessments.
To support intelligence
activities in the field, we propose integrating intelligence received
from Legal Attaches into the FBI’s overall intelligence capability.
The Field Intelligence Groups (FIGS) would be thoroughly integrated into
the larger Intelligence Community. We would also focus on the new regional
intelligence centers, such as the recently announced Counter-Terrorism
Unit at the Upstate New York Regional Intelligence Center.
To support vital functions
related to human talent, we would create a new Intelligence Career Management
group to manage the intelligence career track for agents, intelligence
analysts, linguists, and others, including the development of intelligence
training across the FBI. An FBI Intelligence Officer certification program
would be developed, including U.S. Intelligence Community Officer Training.
This will enable us to build on our efforts to create career paths for
analysts and intelligence agents.
The FBI’s language
translators must do more than straight translation. To be effective,
they must be familiar with the players and understand the context of
what they are translating. This is fundamentally an analytical function,
and accordingly our language analysts should be fully integrated into
our Intelligence Program as well as our operations. To support this integration
it will be necessary to move the Language Services Section and the National
Virtual Translation Center to the Directorate of Intelligence.
Last, but important
to the success of this proposal, is the need to strengthen program management
support to the EAD-I across the elements of the Intelligence Program.
Emphasis would be placed on ensuring consistency of Intelligence Program
priorities with DCI , DOJ and other senior guidance, developing the annual
Future Threat Forecast, and providing security planning and guidance.
Budgeting, evaluations to measure our progress, communications and administrative
functions, and support for the EAD-I’s role as Chair of the JICC
would also be a focus of this effort.
Formalizing and strengthening
centralized management of all intelligence-related resources would be
a key responsibility of the new Directorate. Our initial effort has been
the development of our Concept of Operations for Intelligence Budgeting,
but I believe we can and should move further. The President’s Fiscal
Year 2005 Budget proposes restructuring the FBI’s budget decision
units from the current ten to the following four: Counterterrorism, National
Security, Criminal Enterprises / Federal Crimes, and Criminal Justice
We agree that four
decision units are appropriate and beneficial. The current ten decision
unit structure has intelligence resources spread throughout the organization.
The structure, as proposed in the President’s Budget, would allow
us to more effectively and efficiently manage our resources based on
national priorities and threat assessments. It would give the FBI needed
flexibility to internally shift resources to higher priorities, giving
us agility to respond to rapidly developing national security threats.
The alternative decision
unit structure outlined by NAPA, however, would go further than the proposal
in the 2005 Budget with respect to our intelligence resources. It would
also have four decision units, but would create a new Intelligence Decision
Unit, while combining the Counterterrorism and National Security decision
units, and retaining the Criminal Enterprises / Federal Crimes and Criminal
Justice Services decision units.
If the NAPA proposal
were adopted, the Intelligence Decision Unit should be comprised of operational
elements including the existing Office of Intelligence and our TTIC contingent.
It should also include programmatic elements representing analysts across
the Bureau, and administrative elements, such as training, recruitment,
information technology, and security.
The NAPA structure
would further remove internal barriers that obstruct collaboration across
programs, so that we can better address threats that cross programmatic
lines. It would also provide greater transparency, so that external stakeholders
can more easily identify the level of resources supporting the FBI’s
intelligence program. And finally, it would provide internal safeguards
for out intelligence resources by requiring Congressional approval of
a reprogramming request to shift resources out of the Intelligence Decision
Mr. Chairman, this
is an ambitious plan and it would take a lot of work to fully implement.
But once accomplished, this proposal would provide for the centralized
management and FBI-wide execution of integrated intelligence and law
enforcement operations, an independent requirements and collection management
process, and a dedicated strategic analysis effort. It would create a
strong organizational entity, dedicated to intelligence sharing with
state and local law enforcement, and create opportunities for DOJ-wide
The next logical step
would be to expand the career paths we have established for agents and
analysts into an intelligence career service. This may require new flexibility
related to our ability to hire, promote, and reward intelligence personnel,
and I look forward to working with you and the Administration to resolve
some of these issues.
In closing, Mr. Chairman,
I want to take a moment to thank you and the members of the Subcommittee
for your continued leadership and strong support of the FBI. The funding
you have provided has been critical to our mission and our efforts to
transform the FBI. Over the past two and a half years, we have moved
from an organization that was focused primarily on traditional criminal
investigations to one that is first and foremost investigating and disrupting
I am pleased to respond
to any questions you may have.
Programs - Intelligence Program
The mission of the
Intelligence Program is to optimally position the FBI to meet current
and emerging national security and criminal threats by:
core investigative work proactively against threats to U.S. interests,
- Building and
sustaining enterprise-wide intelligence policies and capabilities, and
useful, appropriate, and timely information and analysis to the national
security, homeland security and law enforcement communities.
- Fill intelligence
gaps with a uniformly managed intelligence process
- Align operations
and capabilities with the threat environment
- Customer Service
internal and external intelligence customers and partners with corporate
information sharing and appropriate support strategies.