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PsyOps Terms


Civilian Affairs

Consolidation PsyOps
Overt Peacetime PsyOps
Programs
Propaganda
Psychological Operations


Civil Affairs -
The activities of a commander that establish, maintain, influence, or exploit relations between military forces and civil authorities, both governmental and nongovernmental, and the civilian populace in a friendly, neutral, or hostile area of operations in order to facilitate military operations and consolidate operational objectives. Civil affairs may include performance by military forces of activities and functions normally the responsibility of local government. These activities may occur prior to, during, or subsequent to other military actions. They may also occur, if directed, in the absence of other military operations. (Joint Pub 1-02)

Consolidation Psychological Operations - Psychological operations conducted in foreign areas inhabited by an enemy or potentially hostile populace and occupied by United States forces, or in which United States forces are based, designed to produce behaviors by the foreign populace that support United States objectives in the area. (Joint Pub 1-02)

Overt Peacetime Psychological Operations Programs - Those programs developed by combatant commands, in coordination with the chiefs of US diplomatic missions, that plan, support, and provide for the conduct, during military operations other than war, of psychological operations in support of US regional objectives, policies, interests, and theater military missions. Also called OP3. (Approved for inclusion in next edition of Joint Pub 1-02)

Propaganda - Any form of communication in support of national objectives designed to influence the opinions, emotions, attitudes, or behavior of any group in order to benefit the sponsor, either directly or indirectly. (Joint Pub 1-02)

Psychological Operations - Planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of foreign governments, organizations, groups, and individuals. The purpose of psychological operations is to induce or reinforce foreign attitudes and behavior favorable to the originator’s objectives. Also called PSYOP. (Joint Pub 1-02)


Essential Documents | Articles | News Watch | Links

'There are but two powers in the world, the sword and the mind. In the long run the sword is always beaten by the mind.'

Napoleon Bonaparte

Definition of Psychological Operations:

'Psychological Operations:  Planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of foreign governments, organizations, groups, and individuals. The purpose of psychological operations is to induce or reinforce foreign attitudes and behavior favorable to the originator's objectives. Also called PSYOP. See also consolidation psychological operations; overt peacetime psychological operations programs; perception management. '
US Department of Defense


Essential Documents


Psychological Operations Interview with the the former Deputy Commander of NATO's Information Campaign in Bosnia, Infocon Magazine Issue One, October 2003

Joint Publication 3-53 - Doctrine for Joint Psychological Operations, [1 MB], Joint Chiefs of Staff, 5 September 2003

Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on the Creation and Dissemination of All Forms of Information in Support of Psychological Operations (PSYOP) in Time of Military Conflict [ 900k], May 2000

OPNAVINST 3434.1 Psychological Operations [565K] by the Chief of Naval Operations 1999

Air Force Doctrine Document 2-5.4 - Public Affairs Operations, [1.22M], October 1999

US Air Force Doctrine 2-5.3: Psychological Operations [710K] published in August 1999

(old) US JP 3-53: Doctrine for Joint Psychological Operations [447K] published in July 1996

Psychological Operations Factsheet




Articles

PsyOps & Public Policy General Articles

Building U.S.- Muslim Understanding and Dialog: Public Diplomacy in the Arab and Muslim Worlds, Ambassador William Rugh (retired), Foreign Press Center Briefing, Washington, DC, March 16, 2005

Deception 101--Primer on Deception, by Dr. Joseph Caddell. Deception is a traditional component of political and military conflict. This monograph defines terms, examines historical examples, and discusses problems associated with deception. It provides a general overview and may serve as a useful reminder of the basic assumptions and methods concerning the subject, December 2004.

Strategic Communication [1.8 MB], Defense Science Board, September 2004

The Broadcasting Board of Governors: Finding the Right Media for the Message in the Middle East, the Subcommittee on International Operations and Terrorism, Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, April 2004

U.S. Launches Arabic Satellite Television Broadcasts Feb. 14 Alhurra aims to deliver "accuracy" and "free and open debate", February 2004

U.S. Public Diplomacy: State Department and Broadcasting Board of Governors Expand Efforts in the Middle East but Face Significant Challenges, by Jess T. Ford, director, international affairs and trade, before the Subcommittee on National Security, Emerging Threats, and International Relations, House Committee on Government Reform. GAO-04-435T, February 10, 2004.

Public Diplomacy Programs Hearing: The Recommendations of the Advisory Group on Public Diplomacy for the Arab and Muslim World Hearing, Committee on Appropriations: Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies, February 2004

Mind games - in the Wake of Iraq, Lieutenant-Colonel Steven Collins assesses the Coalition's perception-management operations before, during and after Operation Iraqi Freedom and their implications for NATO. Reprinted with permission from the NATO Review, NATO Copyright 2003

New Strategic Direction Urged for Public Diplomacy, United States Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy, October 2003

The Army and Embedded Media, Lieutenant Colonel Tammy L. Miracle, U.S. Army, Military Review September-October 2003 English Edition. In Operation Iraqi Freedom, approximately 500 journalists, photographers, and news crews ensure that the media receives every opportunity to observe actual combat operations. Pros and cons surround the program, but the bottom line is that embedding journalists provides an opportunity for the world to see the American soldier's dedication to his mission.

U.S. Public Diplomacy: State Department Expands Efforts but Faces Significant Challenges, GAO-03-951, September 2003

The New Diplomacy: Utilizing Innovative Communication Concepts That Recognize Resource Constraints, A Report from the United States Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy July 2003

U.S. International Broadcasting: New Strategic Approach Focuses on Reaching Large Audiences but Lacks Measurable Program Objectives, GAO-03-772, July 2003

New developments in Chinese strategic psychological warfare by Timothy L Thomas. Special Warfare. Fort Bragg: Apr 2003. Vol. 16, Iss. 1; pg. 9

Commando Solo II: Weapon of Mass Persuasion
, March 19, 2003

American Public Diplomacy and Islam -- U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Thursday, February 27, 2003

PSYOPS soldiers aim to win hearts, minds - Third United States Army Kuwait, February 2003

Radio Sawa Delivers Arab and American Popular Music, April 2002

America's Information War on Terrorism: Winning Hearts and Minds in the Muslim World [2.4 MB] by McClanahan, Jack R, Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2002. 46 p. (USAWC strategy research project)

U.S. Commando Solo II Takes Over Afghan Airwaves by Jim Garamone American Forces Press Service, Oct. 29, 2001

A Message to the People of Afghanistan... (Text of a message broadcast by Commando Solo) during Operation Enduring Freedom. October 2001

US 4th Psychological Operations Group to get new commander
Media Advisory August 2, 2001

Persian Gulf War 10 years later: Winning the war by convincing the enemy to go home by Al Zdon. Reprinted with permission from The Minnesota American Legion and Auxiliary Legionnaire , Winning the war by convincing the enemy to go home by Al Zdon, 2001.

The CNN Effect: Strategic Enabler or Operational Risk? by AUTHOR: Margaret H. Belknap, Strategy Research Project, March 2001

War.com The Internet and Psychological Operations, by Angela Maria Lungu , Major US Army, Naval War College, February 2001

PsyOp Operations in the 21st century by Gary L. Whitley, USAWC Strategy Research Project, US Army War College, 2000

Psyops Units Encouraged to Modernize Their Equipment by Harold Kennedy. Reprinted with permission from National Defense Magazine , Psyops Units Encouraged to Modernize Their Equipment by Harold Kennedy, February 2000.

PSYOP C2W Information Operations in Bosnia by MAJ Arthur Tulak, Military Analyst, CALL , June 1999

Psychological Operations in Bosnia by Lieutenant Colonel Thomas K. Adams, US Army, Retired, Military Review, Headquarters, Department of the Army Prepared by US ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLLEGE VOLUME LXXVIII - December 1998-February 1999, NO 6 Professional Bulletin 100-98-12

Information-Age Psychological Operations by Commander Randall G. Bowdish, US Navy, Military Review, Headquarters, Department of the Army Prepared by US ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLLEGE VOLUME LXXVIII - December 1998-February 1999, NO 6 Professional Bulletin 100-98-12

Planning for Psychological Operations: A Proposal US Air Force Student Research Papers 1998 (Air University at Maxwell Air Base)

Commando Solo Fact Sheet 193d Special Operations Wing Pennsylvania Air National Guard

Information Warfare: An Air Force Policy for the Role of Public Affairs by Robin K. Crumm, June 1996

Political Warfare and Psychological Operations: Rethinking the US Approach [14 MB] by Barnett, Frank R., and Carnes Lord, NDU, 1989, Jan.



PsyOps Leaflets

Leaflets dropped Over Iraq 2002 -2003, US Central Command

PsyOps Leaflets dropped over Afghanistan during Operation Enduring Freedom October 2001

PsyOps Leaflets dropped by NATO airplanes above Kosovo and Serbia 1999

PsyOps during the Korean War





PsyOps News

 

PsyOps Links


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Others

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US Military


U.S. Army Special Operations Command Fort Bragg, North Carolina 28310

US Army FM 33-1 on Psychological Operations published by the US Army JFK SPEC WAR CTRE February 1993, Information restricted to U.S. Government agencies and their contractors 

US Army FM 33-1-1 on Psychological Operations on Techniques and Procedures  published by the US Army JFK SPEC WAR CTRE May 1994, Information restricted to U.S. Government agencies and their contractors 

US Naval Reserve United States Atlantic Command Psychological Operations Unit 'is a special purpose radio/television production unit whose dedicated mission is to train audiovisual personnel for mobilization and to produce audiovisual products in response to CINCUSACOM Special Operation Requirements.'



Others

Clandestine Radio Watch (CRW) is a biweekly summary which centralizes the latest news and developments affecting the study of clandestine radio stations (definitions are very soft, even clandestine radio related stations are included). The editions are published (for free) on the CRW web site.

Falling Leaf - Psywar Society Journal 'First published in 1958, the Falling Leaf provides an invaluable source of news, articles and information about aerial propaganda leaflets. '

Phil Taylor's Web Site. The site contains articles & links covering topics such as
Military-Media Relations, Public Diplomacy, Information Warfare & Information Operations, Psychological Operations, War Reporting, Perception Management & the 'war' on Terrorism

The Psywarrior Site 'This website will attempt to give new emphasis to the indirect approach by conveying a better appreciation for the application of psychological operations. So sit back and join me on a tour of the history of Psychological Operations, and what PSYOP is today.'

POVA - Psychological Operations Veterans Association 'Pure and simple, the Psychological Operations Veterans Association is a reunion association. We have no formal affiliation with our brothers and sisters on active duty with the 4th Psyop Group, nor with the US Army or any other element of the government. The core of the association right now is made up of those of us who served in the 4th Group - and its earlier incarnations - in Vietnam. But we recognize, honor and welcome all Psywarriors from all eras and all engagements. We, above all others, understand and appreciate the work done in Grenada, Panama, Kuwait and now in Bosnia.'


 


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