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STATEMENT BY
REAR ADMIRAL KEVIN J. COSGRIFF, U.S. NAVY
DIRECTOR OR WARFARE INTEGRATION

 BEFORE THE
COMMITTEE ON ARMED SERVICES
SUBCOMMITTEE ON TERRORISM, UNCONVENTIONAL THREATS AND CAPABILITIES
UNITED STATES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 

REGARDING NAVY TRANSFORMATION

 26 FEBRUARY 2004   

Mr. Chairman and members of the Committee, I appreciate the opportunity to appear today.  The investment you've made in America's Navy has been a prudent investment in the nation's security through the Navy's ability to project power, protection and freedom of maneuver to the far corners of the earth.  Thank you for your exceptional and continuous support.

Your Navy Today

Your Navy and Marine Corps team's stellar performance in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT), Operations ENDURING FREEDOM (OEF) and IRAQI FREEDOM (OIF) underscored the high return on your investment in our combat readiness, our people, and our unique maritime warfighting capabilities. Your return on investment included the lift for 94 percent of the nation's joint and warfighting capability and more than 7000 Naval combat sorties in support of OIF. It demonstrated the latest technology in surveillance, command and control and persistent attack operating from sovereign US territory and exploiting the vast maneuver space provided by the sea. OIF and OEF were the most joint operations in our history and they confirmed that we should continue to pursue joint capabilities that enhance power projection, defensive protection and the operational independence afforded by the sea.

Your Future Navy

OIF, OEF and GWOT demonstrated the enormous contributions Naval forces make to the effectiveness of joint and coalition forces. We expect some of the challenges faced in OIF to recur and multiply in the coming years. For example, we expect to encounter and have to overcome political and military area denial strategies.  Further, military anti-access technologies, such as missiles and weapons of mass destruction, will proliferate and play a greater role than they have in the past. 

Analyses of these conflicts indicate that the joint and naval transformational war fighting concepts, capabilities, and technologies and procedures we are pursuing in our Naval Power 21 and Sea Power 21 visions are on the right vector. Our goals are to:

-   chieve greater operational employability

-    Strike with increased speed, variety, lethality from more formations / force packages

-    Provide a defensive shield around joint forces, allies, and homeland

-    Operate jointly from an independent, mobile, secure sea base

-    Network fully within the Joint Force

To achieve these goals transformation must embrace more than new systems. Emerging operational concepts, processes and organizations will help transform the capability of America's 21st century naval services in a way that exploits asymmetric maritime advantages to provide unique and complimentary sea based warfighting capabilities to Joint Force Commanders.

Today I will highlight some of these operational concepts that will markedly improve the employability of naval forces - both those deployed and those ready to surge. I will touch on a few specific capabilities within that increasingly employable force using the capability pillars of Sea Power 21: Sea Shield, Sea Strike, Sea Base, and FORCEnet. Finally I will briefly mention the process by which the Navy develops these capabilities in a joint context.

Operational Concepts: Improving Employability

The Navy and Marine Corps met the challenges of the Cold War by sustaining a portion of our forces at peak readiness and predictably deploying as Carrier Battle Groups and Amphibious Ready Groups carrying Marine Expeditionary Units (Special Operations Capable). These were supported by the Combat Logistics Force and supplemented by the Maritime Prepositioning Force (MPF).  Now we are transforming that force to meet the uncertainties of the 21st century and the challenges of the Global War on Terrorism. 

A great deal of work has been done on increasing the employability of Naval Forces in both geographic and temporal terms. Three new concepts allow for greater geographic distribution and more flexible packaging of naval power:

Global Concept of Operations: The Global Concept of Operations nearly doubles the number of deployable strike groups. In addition to Carrier Strike Groups (CSGs), we have increased the offensive striking power of Amphibious Ready Groups (ARGs) to form Expeditionary Strike Groups (ESGs). Joint experimentation on this concept has already begun. The first ESG deployed in August 2003.

Fleet Response Plan: The Fleet Response Plan (FRP) modifies maintenance and training practices for Carrier Strike Groups and increases the percentage of time that they are employable - whether forward deployed or ready to surge when needed. FRP modifies the maintenance/training operating cycles slightly so as to yield greater employability of our carrier forces during that cycle.

Flexible Deployment Concept: The enhanced and expanded readiness availability resulting from the Fleet Response Plan provides the President with unprecedented responsiveness. The Flexible Deployment Concept allows units that have attained high readiness to embark on deployments of varied duration in support of specific national priorities instead of solely in predictable, lock-step, 6-month deployments. This new construct allows for peacetime deployments that provide "presence with a purpose" or specific warfighting assignments, when necessary.

Transformation in Capability Terms

Sea Power 21 defines the capabilities and processes that the 21st century Navy will deliver.

Sea Shield is the projection of layered defensive power. It seeks maritime superiority to assure access, and to project defense overland.

Sea Strike is the projection of precise and persistent offensive power. It leverages persistence, precision, stealth, and new force packaging concepts to increase operational tempo and reach. It includes strikes by air, missiles, and by Marine strike forces supported by air and long-range gun fires from the sea base.

Sea Base is the projection of operational independence. It provides the Joint Force Commander the capability to retain command and control and logistics at mobile, secure locations at sea and enables Expeditionary Maneuver Warfare.

FORCEnet is the operational construct and architectural framework for naval warfare in the joint, information age. It integrates warriors, sensors, networks, command and control, platforms and weapons into a networked, distributed combat system.

Our overarching transformational operating concept is Seabasing; a national capability, for projecting and sustaining naval power and joint forces which assures joint access by leveraging the operational maneuver of sovereign, distributed, and networked forces operating globally from the sea.  Seabasing unites our capabilities for projecting offensive power, defensive power, command and control, mobility and sustainment around the world.  It will enable commanders to generate high tempo operational maneuver by making use of the sea as a means of gaining advantage.

Sea Shield

  • Assure Access for the Joint Force

  • Project Defense Around Friends & Joint Forces at Sea & Ashore
  • Provide a Sea-Based Layer of Homeland Defense

Transformational Air and Missile Defense efforts seek to extend a defensive umbrella over land by integrating airborne, sea-based and land based sensors to engage targets from the best joint platform with the best weapon. These efforts focus on two areas:

.Initial deployment of sea-based ballistic missile defense capability, and

.Dramatically improved and integrated air and cruise missile defenses.

Key elements include E-2 Advanced Hawkeye, ARLEIGH BURKE (DDG 51) Class destroyers, TICONDEROGA (CG 47) Class cruiser modernization and Joint Strike Fighter (JSF).

Transformational Undersea Warfare efforts seek to develop advanced technologies to improve wide-area surveillance, detection, tracking and attack, multiplying the impact of these technologies through advanced networking to render mines and submarines increasingly less relevant as anti-access weapons. These efforts focus on rapidly finding, destroying or, where necessary, avoiding enemy submarines and mines. Key elements include Multi-Mission Aircraft (MMA), Broad Area Maritime Surveillance (BAMS) UAV, Littoral Combat Ship (LCS), VIRGINIA (SSN 774) Class submarine, and MH60R and MH60S helicopters.

Sea Strike

  • Project Dominant and Decisive Offensive Power Anywhere in the World
  • Immediate, Agile, and Sustainable Fire & Maneuver From the Sea

Transformational Deliberate and Time-Sensitive Strike and Ship-to-Objective Maneuver efforts leverage penetrating, netted ISR to compress decision making through joint networking to engage the enemy with the optimal weapon or maneuver force. The transformed strike capabilities of the Navy and Marine Corps will complement the improved strike capability of the Air Force, Army, and Special Operations Forces. These efforts focus on delivering joint effects from extended range with increased lethality and accuracy and on generating highly responsive fires in support of rapidly closing maneuver forces. Key elements include:

.More flexible land attack cruise missiles launched from ships and submarines (SSGN, Tactical Tomahawk);

.Electronic Radio Frequency or digital attack from manned aircraft (EA-18G), UAVs, and ships;

.Precision-guided munitions delivered by naval manned and unmanned aircraft and surface ships (DD(X), F/A-18 E/F, JSF, J-UCAS);

.Highly-maneuverable and increasingly lethal Marine forces and SEAL teams operating ashore (MV-22, LCAC and future high speed connectors, CH-53X, SSGN/ASDS).

Sea Base

  • Exploit Maneuver Space Provided by Control of the Sea

  • Project and Sustain Responsive Forces Worldwide

  • Minimize Vulnerabilities Tied to Bases Ashore

Sea Base transformation is focused on developing new capabilities to support operations ashore from the sea. These involve deployment of and employment from the sea base, developing integrated logistics to better sustain the joint force, and hosting joint command and control functions afloat. These efforts seek to exploit the secure and vast maneuver space of the sea and enhance the ability to employ and sustain joint forces to minimize vulnerabilities associated with bases ashore. Key elements include the surface combatant family of ships, MPF(F), SAN ANTONIO (LPD 17) Class Amphibious Transport Dock ships, and LEWIS & CLARK (T-AKE) Class Auxiliary Cargo & Ammunition ships, and High Speed Connectors.

FORCEnet

  • Connect Sensors, Networks, Weapons, Decision Aids and Warriors from Seabed to Space
  • Accelerate Speed and Accuracy of Decisions Across Spectrum of Command

FORCEnet is a critical enabler of naval force transformation. It will provide a series of highly integrated distributed networks capable of providing critical operational and tactical information to specified users on a rapid and continuous basis. 

The "publish and subscribe" construct for moving data within the network will facilitate greatly improved shared battlespace awareness, rapid dissemination of the joint force commander's evolving campaign plan, and faster passing of information to ready forces with the right weapons for attacking key targets. The key elements are truly "born joint:" Aerial Common Sensor (ACS), J-UCAS, Joint Tactical radio System (JTRS), Deployable Joint Command and Control (DJC2) and others.

Naval Capability Development Process

The Naval Capability Development Process allows the Navy to  develop "warfighting wholeness" to achieve balance among the pillars of Sea Power 21 in a manner that focuses investment across the full range of appropriation accounts.

This process incorporates strategic guidance from Strategic Planning Guidance, Transformation Planning Guidance, National Security Strategy, and Joint Operating, Functional, and Integrating Concepts. Capability development is derived from various warfighting scenarios that look across the next 15 to 20 years. Force capability metrics - "What it takes for the maritime component of the Joint force to win." - help determine the best way to identify the capabilities that meet the metrics within available resources.

The analytical insights then focus investment not only in acquisition programs (including research and development) but also in science and technology. The Chief of Naval Research plays an important role in developing transformational capabilities that one day will contribute significantly to achieving warfighting wholeness.

Sea Trial is the Navy's process of testing emergent concepts and technologies through experimentation, leading to continuous and rapid improvements in warfighting effectiveness. An example is experimentation with high speed and theater support vessels like JOINT VENTURE and SWIFT. These helped demonstrate the value of joint sea basing and provided important lessons in hull design to feed into development of the next generation of surface combatants.

Conclusion:

America's ability to protect its homeland, assure our friends and allies, deter potential adversaries, and project decisive combat power depends on maritime superiority.  The transformation of naval forces is intended to greatly expand the sovereign options of the President across the full spectrum of warfare by exploiting one of our Nation's asymmetric advantages - control of the sea at the time and place of our choosing, anywhere in the world.

Naval transformation supports joint transformation with service-unique capabilities (e.g. Seabasing). With your continued support, Naval Transformation will be accomplished through new operational concepts, new technologies, new processes and new organizational structures. These will be forged in the Naval Capability Development Process, "built joint" upon the pillars of Sea Shield, Sea Strike, Sea Base, and FORCEnet, rigorously tested via Sea Trial, and taken forward by the 21st century Sea Warrior. Thank you. 

Transformational Undersea Warfare efforts seek to develop advanced technologies to improve wide-area surveillance, detection, tracking and attack, multiplying the impact of these technologies through advanced networking to render mines and submarines increasingly less relevant as anti-access weapons. These efforts focus on rapidly finding, destroying or, where necessary, avoiding enemy submarines and mines. Key elements include Multi-Mission Aircraft (MMA), Broad Area Maritime Surveillance (BAMS) UAV, Littoral Combat Ship (LCS), VIRGINIA (SSN 774) Class submarine, and MH60R and MH60S helicopters.

Sea Strike

  • Project Dominant and Decisive Offensive Power Anywhere in the World
  • Immediate, Agile, and Sustainable Fire & Maneuver From the Sea

Transformational Deliberate and Time-Sensitive Strike and Ship-to-Objective Maneuver efforts leverage penetrating, netted ISR to compress decision making through joint networking to engage the enemy with the optimal weapon or maneuver force. The transformed strike capabilities of the Navy and Marine Corps will complement the improved strike capability of the Air Force, Army, and Special Operations Forces. These efforts focus on delivering joint effects from extended range with increased lethality and accuracy and on generating highly responsive fires in support of rapidly closing maneuver forces. Key elements include:

.More flexible land attack cruise missiles launched from ships and submarines (SSGN, Tactical Tomahawk);

.Electronic Radio Frequency or digital attack from manned aircraft (EA-18G), UAVs, and ships;

.Precision-guided munitions delivered by naval manned and unmanned aircraft and surface ships (DD(X), F/A-18 E/F, JSF, J-UCAS);

.Highly-maneuverable and increasingly lethal Marine forces and SEAL teams operating ashore (MV-22, LCAC and future high speed connectors, CH-53X, SSGN/ASDS).

Sea Base

  • Exploit Maneuver Space Provided by Control of the Sea

  • Project and Sustain Responsive Forces Worldwide

  • Minimize Vulnerabilities Tied to Bases Ashore

Sea Base transformation is focused on developing new capabilities to support operations ashore from the sea. These involve deployment of and employment from the sea base, developing integrated logistics to better sustain the joint force, and hosting joint command and control functions afloat. These efforts seek to exploit the secure and vast maneuver space of the sea and enhance the ability to employ and sustain joint forces to minimize vulnerabilities associated with bases ashore. Key elements include the surface combatant family of ships, MPF(F), SAN ANTONIO (LPD 17) Class Amphibious Transport Dock ships, and LEWIS & CLARK (T-AKE) Class Auxiliary Cargo & Ammunition ships, and High Speed Connectors.

FORCEnet

  • Connect Sensors, Networks, Weapons, Decision Aids and Warriors from Seabed to Space
  • Accelerate Speed and Accuracy of Decisions Across Spectrum of Command

FORCEnet is a critical enabler of naval force transformation. It will provide a series of highly integrated distributed networks capable of providing critical operational and tactical information to specified users on a rapid and continuous basis. 

The "publish and subscribe" construct for moving data within the network will facilitate greatly improved shared battlespace awareness, rapid dissemination of the joint force commander's evolving campaign plan, and faster passing of information to ready forces with the right weapons for attacking key targets. The key elements are truly "born joint:" Aerial Common Sensor (ACS), J-UCAS, Joint Tactical radio System (JTRS), Deployable Joint Command and Control (DJC2) and others.

Naval Capability Development Process

The Naval Capability Development Process allows the Navy to  develop "warfighting wholeness" to achieve balance among the pillars of Sea Power 21 in a manner that focuses investment across the full range of appropriation accounts.

This process incorporates strategic guidance from Strategic Planning Guidance, Transformation Planning Guidance, National Security Strategy, and Joint Operating, Functional, and Integrating Concepts. Capability development is derived from various warfighting scenarios that look across the next 15 to 20 years. Force capability metrics - "What it takes for the maritime component of the Joint force to win." - help determine the best way to identify the capabilities that meet the metrics within available resources.

The analytical insights then focus investment not only in acquisition programs (including research and development) but also in science and technology. The Chief of Naval Research plays an important role in developing transformational capabilities that one day will contribute significantly to achieving warfighting wholeness.

Sea Trial is the Navy's process of testing emergent concepts and technologies through experimentation, leading to continuous and rapid improvements in warfighting effectiveness. An example is experimentation with high speed and theater support vessels like JOINT VENTURE and SWIFT. These helped demonstrate the value of joint sea basing and provided important lessons in hull design to feed into development of the next generation of surface combatants.

Conclusion:

America's ability to protect its homeland, assure our friends and allies, deter potential adversaries, and project decisive combat power depends on maritime superiority.  The transformation of naval forces is intended to greatly expand the sovereign options of the President across the full spectrum of warfare by exploiting one of our Nation's asymmetric advantages - control of the sea at the time and place of our choosing, anywhere in the world.

Naval transformation supports joint transformation with service-unique capabilities (e.g. Seabasing). With your continued support, Naval Transformation will be accomplished through new operational concepts, new technologies, new processes and new organizational structures. These will be forged in the Naval Capability Development Process, "built joint" upon the pillars of Sea Shield, Sea Strike, Sea Base, and FORCEnet, rigorously tested via Sea Trial, and taken forward by the 21st century Sea Warrior. Thank you.


House Armed Services Committee
2120 Rayburn House Office Building
Washington, D.C. 20515