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STATEMENT BY
MAJOR GENERAL (P) JOHN M. CURRAN
DIRECTOR, FUTURES CENTERS
U.S. ARMY TRAINING AND DOCTRINE COMMAND

 BEFORE THE
COMMITTEE ON ARMED SERVICES
SUBCOMMITTEE ON TERRORISM, UNCONVENTIONAL THREATS AND CAPABILITIES
UNITED STATES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 

REGARDING DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE TRANSFORMATION

 26 FEBRUARY 2004  

Mr. Chairman, distinguished members of the Committee, as Director, Futures Center, United States Army Training and Doctrine Command, I welcome the opportunity to testify before you as we transform an Army that is at war. 

We are aggressively meeting challenges today that we will continue to face tomorrow.  Rather than focusing on a single, well-defined threat or geographic region, the Army is developing a range of complementary and interdependent joint capabilities that will enable future Joint Force Commanders to dominate any adversary or situation across the full range of military operations.  A capabilities-based approach to concept and force development, as articulated in the 2001 Quadrennial Defense Review, is the major focus of our transformation.

The imperative for America's Army to change rapidly has never been more compelling than today.  The reasons have been and are visible, visceral and real - we've seen them on television as the events of 9/11 unfolded in nearly every workplace and home.  That single event constituted a strategic inflection point.  It revealed the outline of a new kind of threat and shadowy enemy that the Army would be called upon to engage in Afghanistan, Iraq and around the world.  This new kind of attack broke from past practices and assumptions that were the foundation of US defense planning.  The enemy did their threat assessment much as we do ours. They concluded that they would fail if they were to engage the US in a head-to-head conventional fight like Iraq did in 1990-1991 or if they tried to avoid US land power like the Former Republic of Yugoslavia did in Kosovo.

Our enemies developed new strategies focused on new techniques and operational methods.  Using dysfunctional nation-states as sanctuaries, terrorists, rogue actors and non-state adversaries sought to exploit the tools of modern societies and science to attack where the US was most vulnerable - directly against our homeland and interests abroad.  Pictures of attacks against the US like the USS Cole bombing and destruction of our embassies in Africa further underscored their change in tactics.  Their persistent efforts to acquire and use weapons of mass destruction are a specter that we must not overlook. 

Our collective responsibility in the defense of this nation is to intertwine the capabilities that all Services will bring to bear as a shield for democracy.  The end-state of our work will be a joint interdependent force that maximizes Service complementary and reinforcing effects while minimizing their vulnerabilities and redundancies.  Although each Service contributes its own unique capabilities to joint operations, each dominating its respective domain, joint interdependence is critical to improving Joint Force effectiveness.  Joint Interdependence is achieved through the deliberate, mutual reliance of each Service on the capabilities of other Services or agencies to optimize overall effectiveness of the Joint Force.  Because of this imperative, the Army has forged a solid relationship with Joint Forces Command and its sister Services.  While embodying attributes of the joint force, as stated in joint doctrine, "The Army is the nation's decisive land warfare force. The Army's contribution to the Joint Force Commander is the power to exercise direct, sustained, and comprehensive control over the land, its resources, and its people."  

To fully realize the contribution of Army capabilities to the joint fight, we are an active participant in the Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System (JCIDS) and the Joint Requirements Oversight Council (JROC) for articulating Army requirements.  This process identifies, assesses and prioritizes "Born Joint" military capabilities.  Although complex at times, this process produces capability proposals that consider the full range of doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel and facilities (DOTMLPF) solutions in order to advance joint warfighting.

To fight effectively in a new operating environment and engage a more elusive enemy, the Army must accelerate its transformation efforts.  The transition from the current to the future force must happen at a pace beyond that which the institutional Army moved in the last years of the 20th century.  The picture of what the Army needs to be is clear.

- The Army of the future must be agile to conduct simultaneous, distributed, non-linear operations.

- The Army of the future must be lethal to fight at multiple austere entry points.

- The Army of the future must be networked to self-synchronize through shared, enhanced situational awareness from global and robust Joint Command and Control and Intelligence.

- The Army of the future must be precise to directly attack centers of gravity that are the enemy's source of strength.

- The Army of the future must be rapidly deployable to have a small logistics footprint with robust reachback for required support.

- The Army of the future must be modular to give Regional Combatant Commanders the capability to apply decisive land power at the right place at the right time.

- The Army of the future must be born Joint - a member of an interdependent team -- so that the synergy of joint operations is ready to unleash the full military power of the US on unknowable battlefields around the globe.

Transforming our Nation's military capabilities while at war requires a careful balance between sustaining and enhancing the capabilities of current forces to fight wars and win peace while investing in the capabilities of future forces.  We must craft new solution sets that generate technologically sound, sustainable and affordable increments to our capabilities.  [c1]  Joint concept development and experimentation, science and technology (S&T) investment, and future force design will enable interdependent network-enabled warfare and ensure future capabilities meet the requirements of tomorrow's Joint Force.  The Joint Team will use a process of experimentation to identify solutions, capabilities gaps, all supported by a robust analytical process which incorporates innovative practices-including best commercial practices, collaborative environments, modeling simulation and electronic business solutions. 

At the same time, we will take advantage of a high rate of current operations and learning to drive change in our current force.  New ideas are gathered and explored to solve pressing near-term operational challenges; they are also extended to describe how future joint operational capabilities may be improved.  We will look for opportunities to accelerate the fielding of proven technologies to enhance the capabilities of our current forces at war.

This continuous process forms the basis for transformation.  Joint Concepts may be revolutionary, driving new technology; or evolutionary, building upon newly discovered knowledge; or innovative, applying off-the-shelf technologies to the development of future concepts.  Our transformational path may seem very foreign compared to past methods of change.  We must accelerate our change from the current Army now winning the Nation's wars and ensuring our security, to the Army of the future that will be even more relevant and ready.  We cannot focus only on material solutions - weapon systems that were visible and measurable indices of military power and were our focus during the Cold War. 

We must harness all supporting enablers to be successful on our transformational path:

- Visionary doctrine that describes how we will fight.

- New kinds of organizations that can rapidly go, fight and win anywhere.

- Innovative training within the Army and in joint and combined arenas that prepares each individual soldier for success.

- Comprehensive programs to grow future leaders who can function in ambiguous situations.

- Continued energy at accessing and retaining the right personnel through our recruiting process.

- Developing the right kind of facilities that help us train and retain the very best Army for the future.

The U.S. Army's Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) is the institutional center that is the launch platform of the two Army's core competencies:  (1) Train and equip soldiers and grow leaders; and (2) provide relevant and ready land power capabilities to Combatant Commanders and the Department of Homeland Security as part of the Joint Team.  We are the first and primary step in accessing, training and equipping soldiers and growing leaders.  We determine the required capabilities for the land force which HQDA, the Joint Staff and OSD put forward for Congress to resource.

TRADOC is the primary point of entry into the Army's Future Force development.  Our core competencies span the entire spectrum from creating intellectual capital in ideas to defining, experimenting and deploying fielded capabilities.  Chief among our partners is the Joint Forces Command.  We have built a rapport and trust that underpins a great team.  The Army's Future Force will evolve to meet Joint rather than Service defined requirements, and we are the Army's agent for joint concept and capabilities development.

In 2003, for the first time the Army and the U.S. Joint Forces Command entered into a partnership and co-sponsored Unified Quest (UQ03), the Army's premiere transformational wargame which goes back many years.  This now joint wargame explores not only Army concepts but also Joint and inter-Service concepts in a future force whose capabilities must be "born joint".  This leap in transforming our military through application of spiral concept development also creates an environment where both U.S. Joint Forces Command and the Army's Service component, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), will be able to examine several unique embedded experiments that are specific to each organization.  Following in the footsteps of UQ03, this year's wargame, UQ04, will set a new precedent-breaking path by extending the exercise play from that of UQ 03.  Game organizations will examine scenarios that involve major combat operations, stability operations, transition to post-conflict and network-centric command structure in the year 2015.  We are also engaged with our sister Services in their wargames like the Navy's UNIFIED COURSE 04, the Air Force's UNIFIED ENGAGEMENT VII, and the Marine Corps' JOINT URBAN WARRIOR.

As the architect of the future, TRADOC's Futures Center is the Army's scout.  We are continually assessing the future and our assessment is driven by real-time guidance and direction from policy documents like the National Security Strategy and the Strategic Planning Guidance.  TRADOC's Futures Center is the nexus of Army innovation.  Few organizations have a greater degree of influence on how the Army thinks, acts, trains and fights.  The Futures Center at TRADOC, while relatively new, is the lead action agent to develop the Future Force.  We have subsumed the mission and roles of the Objective Force Task Force and we are building on the foundation of their successes.  We are also enabling soldiers in the current fight by determining capabilities gaps and integrating the spiraling of discreet Future Force capabilities that add significantly to the Current Force.  Too often we think of these spirals as materiel solutions, but our efforts span the breadth of doctrine, organizations, training, materiel, leader development, personnel and facilities.  This is a very challenging mission but we are uniquely postured to do the job.

At the same time, we fully recognize that we cannot do this alone.  Partnering with the Department of Defense, joint community, other Services, industry, academia, our Allies and the Army family is critical to our success. 

The Army, therefore, faces the supreme test of all Armies:  We must rapidly adapt to a future we did not foresee and we must do this in the midst of fighting a war with forces deployed globally; a challenging mission that mandates a new transformation methodology.

Further, successful transformation requires clear direction.  Many avenues of change will present themselves as we delve more deeply into these complex issues, and a clear azimuth is necessary to avoid veering off-course.  To transform quickly, the Chief of Staff for the Army has sponsored several focus areas that each require exploration and immediate action.  Each focus area has General Officer oversight and places special emphasis on incorporation of joint capabilities, spiral development of emerging technologies and inclusion of future force initiatives where they enhance combat effectiveness.  The guiding tenets of these activities are a joint focus, modularizing the field force, building a network capability and enhancing capabilities of the individual soldier.

As we explore and prioritize opportunities, we need to assess possible solutions from a Joint and Expeditionary perspective.  Our military has no peer with respect to combining technologies and tools in all dimensions of warfare.  The synergies we generate give us a military advantage that overwhelms our adversaries.  This is a good news story that improves with each increment of increased Joint Integration, but we can do better.  We need to actively seek opportunities to leverage the capabilities of the Joint Team. 

Bereft of organic strategic lift, the Army depends largely on the Air Force and the Navy for strategic deployment.  The challenge is to extend such Joint Interdependence to the tactical level.  The range of weapon systems and capabilities extend beyond their "dimension of origin" making it both possible and advantageous to synchronize their effects at the lowest possible level.  Our enemies will attempt to protect themselves by locating in the most austere and inaccessible regions of the world.  Possessing redundant and separate capabilities complicates our operations rather than enhancing mission execution.  We must be able to seamlessly employ all the Joint tools at the point of contact.  We cannot and should not go it alone. 

The Army and the other Services have addressed the spirit of Joint Interdependence in recent joint training initiatives.  The Joint Forces Command's Joint National Training Capability (JNTC) exercise trains America's Joint forces.  The JNTC links Service training facilities and ranges into a real-time, around the world joint training environment effectively bridging communication gaps to apply the full range of multi-level joint capabilities into joint exercises.  These exercises also bring to bear the mutual supporting relationships of the Services and explore the seams and gaps in operational settings.  Never before has this type of training been executed incorporating live, virtual and constructive maneuver and support making Joint Interdependence come alive.

Effective change is continual.  We will have intermediate objectives along the transformation path, but we will not reach a point where we declare that we have in fact fielded the Future Force.  Rather, our forces will always represent a hybrid of capabilities.  The goal is to continually strive to pull mature capabilities into the Current Force so that over time our Army more closely resembles the vision of the Future Force.

The Army is aggressively moving forward to restructure into more modular, capabilities-based forces to give the Combatant Commander a more robust array of options.  The Army will continue to support operational deployments and rotations while restructuring itself.  Changing the Army organization structure will be logical and account for future force concepts.  To accomplish this, forces at the brigade level will restructure to enhance expeditionary and campaign qualities of the Army to better integrate into joint and coalition operations.

This new capabilities-based Army will result in a net enabled force.  It will have Battle Command capabilities to leverage and enable interdependent network-centric warfare within Joint, Interagency, and Multinational full spectrum operations.  Accelerating the Future Force network will enhance the Joint Command capabilities.  New networked forces will leverage an infrastructure that provides for end-to-end movement of data, information and knowledge.  This will provide connectivity between vertical and horizontal forces, across Joint/coalition forces and Army echelons down to the soldier.  This new pathway will facilitate the Army's ability to adaptively plan within the Joint Force operating environment.  Networked soldiers will have real-time and reliable information through a collaborative environment in a global information grid enabling the Joint Force to maintain information superiority.  Capitalizing on actionable intelligence, networked forces will have the capabilities to filter and disseminate information that are integral to a common operational picture.

While technology and training inform us on what the future force will use to fight the next war, it is the individual soldier who is the centerpiece of our efforts and remains indispensable to the Joint team.  Flexible, adaptive, and competent Soldiers infused with the Army's Warrior Culture fight wars and provide hope for world peace.  An American Soldier as a Joint Warrior represents the ultimate linkage between sensor and shooter and confirms the irrefutable maxim that quality is more important than quantity.  War is a test of wills and the human dimension is its most pivotal aspect.  Our philosophy of equipping the Soldier as opposed to manning the equipment is enduring.  When we enhance the Soldier's lethality, protection and situational awareness, we enable individual initiative at the point in which battles and wars are won. 

In summary, we're taking on the biggest challenge an Army can face;  transforming while at war.  Our transformation path is marked by some clear signposts - experiment widely with our Joint and Service counterparts, never be content with only materiel solutions, aggressively use spiral development to get elements of the future force into the hands of the soldier on today's battlefields and ensure our innovation results in "born joint" capabilities that contribute to successful mission accomplishment at any point on the globe across the spectrum of conflict.  The window of opportunity to do this is finite; we must not tire in our efforts. 

It has been said many ways:  Soldiers are our credentials; The Soldier is the centerpiece of our formations and the American Soldier represents the ultimate linkage between the U.S. Army and the Joint Force Combatant Commander.  This is not a coincidence.  The United States Army Training and Doctrine Command exists to keep the American Soldier the preeminent symbol of both American military power and values.  This is more than just a paper statement or something that hangs on the wall for show, it's a level of commitment and challenge that drives us as we show up for work each day.


  [c1] Need to restructure this sentence



House Armed Services Committee
2120 Rayburn House Office Building
Washington, D.C. 20515